"The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved carbidopa/levodopa enteral suspension (Duopa, AbbVie) for the treatment of motor fluctuations in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease, according to a company news release.
In a dose escalation study in patients on chronic levodopa therapy treated with 10 mg of AZILECT there were three reports of cardiovascular side effects (including hypertension and postural hypotension) which resolved following treatment discontinuation.
Although no cases of overdose have been observed with AZILECT during the clinical development program, the following description of presenting symptoms and clinical course is based upon overdose descriptions of nonselective MAO inhibitors.
The signs and symptoms of nonselective MAOI overdose may not appear immediately. Delays of up to 12 hours after ingestion of drug and the appearance of signs may occur. The peak intensity of the syndrome may not be reached until for a day following the overdose. Death has been reported following overdose; therefore, immediate hospitalization, with continuous patient observation and monitoring for at least two days following the ingestion of such drugs in overdose, is strongly recommended.
The severity of the clinical signs and symptoms of MAOI overdose varies and may be related to the amount of drug consumed. The central nervous and cardiovascular systems are prominently involved.
Signs and symptoms of MAOI overdose may include: drowsiness, dizziness, faintness, irritability, hyperactivity, agitation, severe headache, hallucinations, trismus, opisthotonos, convulsions, and coma; rapid and irregular pulse, hypertension, hypotension and vascular collapse; precordial pain, respiratory depression and failure, hyperpyrexia, diaphoresis, and cool, clammy skin.
There is no specific antidote for AZILECT overdose. The following suggestions are offered based upon the assumption that AZILECT overdose may be modeled after nonselective MAO inhibitor poisoning. Treatment of overdose with nonselective MAO inhibitors is symptomatic and supportive. Respiration should be supported by appropriate measures, including management of the airway, use of supplemental oxygen, and mechanical ventilatory assistance, as required. Body temperature should be monitored closely. Intensive management of hyperpyrexia may be required. Maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance is essential. For this reason, in cases of overdose with AZILECT, dietary tyramine restriction should be observed for several weeks to reduce the risk of hypertensive tyramine reaction.
A poison control center should be called for the most current treatment guidelines.
A postmarketing report described a single patient who developed a nonfatal serotonin syndrome after ingesting 100 mg of AZILECT in a suicide attempt. Another patient who was treated in error with 4 mg AZILECT daily and tramadol also developed a serotonin syndrome. One patient who was treated in error with 3 mg AZILECT daily experienced alternating episodes of vascular fluctuations consisting of hypertension and orthostatic hypotension.
AZILECT is contraindicated for use with meperidine, tramadol, methadone, propoxyphene and MAO inhibitors (MAOIs), including other selective MAO-B inhibitors, because of risk of serotonin syndrome [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of AZILECT and initiation of treatment with these medications.
AZILECT is contraindicated for use with St. John's wort and with cyclobenzaprine.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/12/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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