Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
- What is bacterial vaginosis?
- What is the cause of bacterial vaginosis?
- What are the signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis?
- What are the complications of bacterial vaginosis?
- How is bacterial vaginosis diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for bacterial vaginosis?
- What is the prognosis (outlook) for bacterial vaginosis?
- Can bacterial vaginosis be prevented?
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What is bacterial vaginosis?
Bacterial vaginosis is the overgrowth or imbalance of certain bacteria within the vagina, leading in some cases to symptoms including a vaginal discharge that may be foul-smelling. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal infection in the US in women of childbearing age. It is found in women of all ages. Bacterial vaginosis is also common in pregnant women.
What is the cause of bacterial vaginosis?
Bacterial vaginosis was formerly referred to as Gardnerella vaginosis, because Gardnerella bacteria were thought to be solely responsible for the infection. It is now known that different types of bacteria can cause the condition as well.
Bacterial vaginosis is not typically considered to be a sexually-transmitted infection, because some experts feel it can occur in women who are not sexually active. However, sexual activity is a risk factor for contracting bacterial vaginosis. The exact role of sexual activity in the development of bacterial vaginosis remains unclear. For example, having new sex partners or multiple sex partners (male or female) increases a woman's risk of getting bacterial vaginosis. The use of vaginal douches and intrauterine devices for contraception also increases the risk. Recent use of antibiotics and cigarette smoking have also been associated with the development of bacterial vaginosis.
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