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Application of 14C-labeled mupirocin ointment to the lower arm of normal male subjects followed by occlusion for 24 hours showed no measurable systemic absorption ( < 1.1 nanogram mupirocin per milliliter of whole blood). Measurable radioactivity was present in the stratum corneum of these subjects 72 hours after application.
Following intravenous or oral administration, mupirocin is rapidly metabolized. The principal metabolite, monic acid, is eliminated by renal excretion, and demonstrates no antibacterial activity. In a trial conducted in 7 healthy adult male subjects, the elimination half-life after intravenous administration of mupirocin was 20 to 40 minutes for mupirocin and 30 to 80 minutes for monic acid. The pharmacokinetics of mupirocin has not been studied in individuals with renal insufficiency.
Mupirocin is an antibacterial agent produced by fermentation using the organism Pseudomonasfluorescens. Mupirocin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by reversibly and specifically binding to bacterial isoleucyl transfer-RNA (tRNA) synthetase. Due to this unique mode of action, mupirocin does not demonstrate cross-resistance with other classes of antimicrobial agents.
When mupirocin resistance occurs, it results from the production of a modified isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, or the acquisition of, by genetic transfer, a plasmid mediating a new isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase. High-level plasmid-mediated resistance (MIC > 512 mcg/mL) has been reported in increasing numbers of isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and with higher frequency in coagulase-negative staphylococci. Mupirocin resistance occurs with greater frequency in methicillin-resistant than methicillin-susceptible staphylococci. Because of the occurrence of mupirocin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), it is appropriate to test MRSA populations for mupirocin susceptibility prior to the use of mupirocin using a standardized method. 1,2,3
Mupirocin is bactericidal at concentrations achieved by topical administration. Mupirocin is highly protein-bound ( > 97%), and the effect of wound secretions on the MICs of mupirocin has not been determined.
Mupirocin has been shown to be active against susceptible strains of S. aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, both in vitro and in clinical trials (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE). The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. Mupirocin is active against most isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis.
The efficacy of topical BACTROBAN Ointment in impetigo was tested in 2 trials. In the first, subjects with impetigo were randomized to receive either BACTROBAN Ointment or vehicle placebo 3 times daily for 8 to 12 days. Clinical efficacy rates at end of therapy in the evaluable populations (adults and pediatric subjects included) were 71% for BACTROBAN Ointment (n = 49) and 35% for vehicle placebo (n = 51). Pathogen eradication rates in the evaluable populations were 94% for BACTROBAN Ointment and 62% for vehicle placebo. There were no side effects reported in the group receiving BACTROBAN Ointment.
In the second trial, subjects with impetigo were randomized to receive either BACTROBAN Ointment 3 times daily or 30 to 40 mg/kg oral erythromycin ethylsuccinate per day (this was an unblinded trial) for 8 days. There was a follow-up visit 1 week after treatment ended. Clinical efficacy rates at the follow-up visit in the evaluable populations (adults and pediatric subjects included) were 93% for BACTROBAN Ointment (n = 29) and 78.5% for erythromycin (n = 28). Pathogen eradication rates in the evaluable populations were 100% for both test groups. There were no side effects reported in the group receiving BACTROBAN Ointment.
There were 91 pediatric subjects aged 2 months to 15 years in the first trial described above. Clinical efficacy rates at end of therapy in the evaluable populations were 78% for BACTROBAN Ointment (n = 42) and 36% for vehicle placebo (n = 49). In the second trial described above, all subjects were pediatric except 2 adults in the group receiving BACTROBAN Ointment. The age range of the pediatric subjects was 7 months to 13 years. The clinical efficacy rate for BACTROBAN Ointment (n = 27) was 96%, and for erythromycin it was unchanged (78.5%).
1. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard - Tenth Edition. CLSI document M07-A10 , Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087, USA.
2. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard - Twelfth Edition. CLSI document M02-A12 , Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087, USA.
3. Finlay JE, Miller LA, Poupard JA. Interpretive criteria for testing susceptibility of staphylococci to mupirocin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1997;41(5): 1137-1139.
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/14/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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