"What are angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and how do they work?
The class of drugs called angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), as the class name suggests, are drugs that block the action of angiotensin. Specifically, ARBs preve"...
Olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide has been evaluated for safety in 1243 hypertensive patients. Treatment with olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide was well tolerated, with an incidence of adverse events similar to placebo. Events generally were mild, transient and had no relationship to the dose of olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide.
In the clinical trials, the overall frequency of adverse events was not dose-related. Analysis of gender, age and race groups demonstrated no differences between olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide and placebo-treated patients. The rate of withdrawals due to adverse events in all trials of hypertensive patients was 2.0% (25/1243) of patients treated with olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide and 2.0% (7/342) of patients treated with placebo.
In a placebo-controlled clinical trial, the following adverse events reported with olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide occurred in > 2% of patients, and more often on the olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide combination than on placebo, regardless of drug relationship:
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The following adverse events were also reported at a rate of > 2%, but were as, or more, common in the placebo group: headache and urinary tract infection.
Other adverse events that have been reported with an incidence of greater than 1.0%, whether or not attributed to treatment, in the more than 1200 hypertensive patients treated with olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide in controlled or open-label trials are listed below.
Body as a Whole: chest pain, back pain, peripheral edema
Central and Peripheral Nervous System: vertigo
Liver and Biliary System: SGOT increased, GGT increased, SGPT increased
Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperlipemia, creatine phosphokinase increased, hyperglycemia
Respiratory System: coughing
Skin and Appendages Disorders: rash
Urinary System: hematuria
Facial edema was reported in 2/1243 patients receiving olmesartan medoxomilhydrochlorothiazide. Angioedema has been reported with angiotensin II receptor antagonists.
Other adverse events that have been reported with an incidence of greater than 0.5%, whether or not attributed to treatment, in more than 3100 hypertensive patients treated with olmesartan medoxomil monotherapy in controlled or open-label trials are tachycardia and hypercholesterolemia.
Other adverse experiences that have been reported with hydrochlorothiazide, without regard to causality, are listed below:
Body as a Whole: weakness
Hypersensitivity: purpura, photosensitivity, urticaria, necrotizing angiitis (vasculitis and cutaneous vasculitis), fever, respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, anaphylactic reactions
Metabolic: hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hyperuricemia
Musculoskeletal: muscle spasm
Nervous System/Psychiatric: restlessness
Renal: renal failure, renal dysfunction, interstitial nephritis
Special Senses: transient blurred vision, xanthopsia
Laboratory Test Findings
In controlled clinical trials, clinically important changes in standard laboratory parameters were rarely associated with administration of olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide.
Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen: Increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine of > 50% were observed in 1.3% of patients. No patients were discontinued from clinical trials of olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide due to increased BUN or creatinine.
Hemoglobin and Hematocrit: A greater than 20% decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit was observed in 0.0 % and 0.4% (one patient), respectively, of olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide patients, compared with 0.0% and 0.0%, respectively, in placebo-treated patients. No patients were discontinued due to anemia.
Post-Marketing Experience: The following adverse reactions have been reported in post-marketing experience:
Body as a Whole: Asthenia, angioedema, anaphylactic reactions, peripheral edema
Gastrointestinal: Vomiting, diarrhea
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Hyperkalemia
Urogenital System: Acute renal failure, increased blood creatinine levels
Read the Benicar HCT (olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
No significant drug interactions were reported in studies in which olmesartan medoxomil was co-administered with hydrochlorothiazide, digoxin or warfarin in healthy volunteers. The bioavailability of olmesartan was not significantly altered by the co-administration of antacids [Al(OH)3/Mg(OH)2]. Olmesartan medoxomil is not metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system and has no effects on P450 enzymes; thus, interactions with drugs that inhibit, induce or are metabolized by those enzymes are not expected.
Dual Blockade of the Renin- Angiotensin System (RAS)
Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on Benicar HCT and other agents that affect the RAS.
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors)
In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including olmesartan medoxomil, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving olmesartan medoxomil and NSAID therapy.
The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including olmesartan medoxomil may be attenuated by NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors.
Concurrent administration of bile acid sequestering agent colesevelam hydrochloride reduces the systemic exposure and peak plasma concentration of olmesartan. Administration of olmesartan at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride decreased the drug interaction effect. Consider administering olmesartan at least 4 hours before the colesevelam hydrochloride dose (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Drug Interactions).
When administered concurrently the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics:
Alcohol, Barbiturates, Or Narcotics – potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur.
Antidiabetic Drugs (oral agents and insulin) – dosage adjustment of the antidiabetic drug may be required.
Other Antihypertensive Drugs – additive effect or potentiation.
Cholestyramine and Colestipol Resins – absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins. Single doses of either cholestyramine or colestipol resins bind the hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by up to 85 and 43 percent, respectively.
Corticosteroids, ACTH – intensified electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalemia.
Pressor Amines (e.g. Norepinephrine) – possible decreased response to pressor amines but not sufficient to preclude their use.
Skeletal Muscle Relaxants, Non depolarizing (e.g. Tubocurarine) – possible increased responsiveness to the muscle relaxant.
Lithium – should not generally be given with diuretics. Diuretic agents reduce the renal clearance of lithium and add a high risk of lithium toxicity. Refer to the package insert for lithium preparations before use of such preparation with olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide.
Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs – in some patients the administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic and antihypertensive effects of loop, potassium-sparing and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, when olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide tablets and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are used concomitantly, the patients should be observed closely to determine if the desired effect of the diuretic is obtained.
Read the Benicar HCT Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/16/2013
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