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Benzamycin

Last reviewed on RxList: 6/10/2008
Drug Description

Benzamycin® Pak
(erythromycin 3%-benzoyl peroxide 5%) Topical Gel
For Dermatological Use Only Not for Ophthalmic Use

DESCRIPTION

Benzamycin® Pak contains erythromycin [(3R*, 4S*, 5S*, 6R*, 7R*, 9R*, 11R*, 12R*, 13S*, 14R*)-4-[(2,6- dideoxy-3-C-methyl-3-O-methyl-a- L-ribo-hexopyranosyl)-oxy]-14- ethyl-7,12,13-trihydroxy- 3,5,7,9,11,13-hexa-methyl-6-[ [3,4,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-b-D- xylo-hexopyranosyl] oxy]oxacyclotetradecane-2,10- dione]. Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic produced from a strain of Saccharopolyspora erythraea (formerly Streptomyces erythreus). It is a base and readily forms salts with acids. Chemically, erythromycin is (C37H67NO13).  It has the following structural formula:

Erythromycin has the molecular weight of 733.94. It is a white crystalline powder and has a solubility of approximately 1 mg/mL in water and is soluble in alcohol at 25°C. Benzamycin (erythromycin) ® Pak also contains benzoyl peroxide for topical use. Benzoyl peroxide is an oxidizing agent demonstrating antibacterial activity. Chemically, benzoyl peroxide is (C14H10O4).  It has the following structural formula:

Benzoyl peroxide has the molecular weight of 242.23. It is a white granular powder and is sparingly soluble in water and alcohol and soluble in acetone, chloroform and ether. Each gram of product, as dispensed, contains 30 mg of erythromycin and 50 mg of benzoyl peroxide in a base of SD Alcohol 40B, purified water, hydroxypropyl cellulose, carbomer 934, sodium hydroxide, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate 75%. Each Benzamycin (erythromycin) ® Pak contains 0.8 grams of product.

For Consumers

What are the possible side effects of benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin topical (Benzamycin)?

Serious side effects are not likely to occur. Stop using benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin topical and seek emergency medical attention if you experience an allergic reaction (shortness of breath; closing of the throat; swelling of the lips, face, or tongue; or hives).

You may experience some skin burning, stinging, tingling, itching, redness, dryness, peeling, or irritation while using benzoyl peroxide topical. If these side effects are excessive, apply benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin topical less often.

Side effects other than those listed...

Indications & Dosage

INDICATIONS

BENZAMYCIN (erythromycin) Topical Gel is indicated for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

BENZAMYCIN (erythromycin) Topical Gel should be applied twice daily, morning and evening, or as directed by a physician, to affected areas after the skin is thoroughly washed, rinsed with warm water and gently patted dry.

HOW SUPPLIED

Compounding Directions

Size
(Net Weight)
NDC 0066- Benzoyl Peroxide Gel Active Erythromycin Powder
(In Plastic Vial)
Ethyl Alcohol (70%) To Be Added
23.3 grams
(as dispensed)
0510-23 20 grams 0.8 grams 3 mL
46.6 grams
(as dispensed)
0510-46 40 grams 1.6 grams 6 mL

Prior to dispensing, tap vial until powder flows freely. Add indicated amount of ethyl alcohol (70%) to vial (to the mark) and immediately shake to completely dissolve erythromycin. Add this solution to gel and stir until homogeneous in appearance (1 to 1½ minutes). BENZAMYCIN (erythromycin) Topical Gel should then be stored under refrigeration. Do not freeze. Place a 3-month expiration date on the label.

NOTE: Prior to reconstitution, store at room temperature between 15° and 30°C (59° - 86°F).

After reconstitution, store under refrigeration between 2° and 8°C (36° - 46°F). Do not freeze. Keep tightly closed. Keep out of the reach of children.

Prescribing Information as of January 2003. Manufactured for Dermik Laboratories, A Division of Aventis Pharmaceuticals Inc. Berwyn, PA 19312, USA. by Aventis Pharmaceuticals Puerto Rico Inc. Manati, Puerto Rico 00674. FDA Rev date: 1/27/2003

Side Effects & Drug Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS

In controlled clinical trials, the incidence of adverse reactions associated with the use of BENZAMYCIN (erythromycin) Topical Gel was approximately 3%. These were dryness and urticarial reaction.

The following additional local adverse reactions have been reported occasionally: irritation of the skin including peeling, itching, burning sensation, erythema, inflammation of the face, eyes and nose, and irritation of the eyes. Skin discoloration, oiliness and tenderness of the skin have also been reported.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

No information provided.

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Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

Warnings & Precautions

WARNINGS

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including erythromycin, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of antibacterial agents.

Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile is one primary cause of "antibiotic-associated colitis."

After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, therapeutic measures should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuation alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation and treatment with an antibacterial drug clinically effective against C. difficile colitis.

PRECAUTIONS

General: For topical use only; not for ophthalmic use. Concomitant topical acne therapy should be used with caution because a possible cumulative irritancy effect may occur, especially with the use of peeling, desquamating or abrasive agents. If severe irritation develops, discontinue use and institute appropriate therapy. The use of antibiotic agents may be associated with the overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms including fungi. If this occurs, discontinue use and take appropriate measures.

Avoid contact with eyes and all mucous membranes.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis And Impairment Of Fertility

Data from a study using mice known to be highly susceptible to cancer suggests that benzoyl peroxide acts as a tumor promoter. The clinical significance of this is unknown.

No animal studies have been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic and mutagenic potential or effects on fertility of topical erythromycin. However, long-term (2-year) oral studies in rats with erythromycin ethylsuccinate and erythromycin base did not provide evidence of tumorigenicity. There was no apparent effect on male or female fertility in rats fed erythromycin (base) at levels up to 0.25% of diet.

Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy CATEGORY C: Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with BENZAMYCIN (erythromycin) Topical Gel or benzoyl peroxide.

There was no evidence of teratogenicity or any other adverse effect on reproduction in female rats fed erythromycin base (up to 0.25% diet) prior to and during mating, during gestation and through weaning of two successive litters. There are no well-controlled trials in pregnant women with BENZAMYCIN (erythromycin) Topical Gel. It also is not known whether BENZAMYCIN (erythromycin) Topical Gel can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproductive capacity. BENZAMYCIN (erythromycin) Topical Gel should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Nursing Women: It is not known whether BENZAMYCIN (erythromycin) Topical Gel is excreted in human milk after topical application. However, erythromycin is excreted in human milk following oral and parenteral erythromycin administration. Therefore, caution should be exercised when erythromycin is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness of this product in pediatric patients below the age of 12 have not been established.

Overdosage & Contraindications

OVERDOSE

No information provided.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

BENZAMYCIN (erythromycin) Topical Gel is contraindicated in those individuals who have shown hypersensitivity to any of its components.

Clinical Pharmacology

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

The exact mechanism by which erythromycin reduces lesions of acne vulgaris is not fully known; however, the effect appears to be due in part to the antibacterial activity of the drug.

Benzoyl peroxide has a keratolytic and desquamative effect which may also contribute to its efficacy. Benzoyl peroxide has been shown to be absorbed by the skin where it is converted to benzoic acid.

Microbiology

Erythromycin acts by inhibition of protein synthesis in susceptible organisms by reversibly binding to 50 S ribosomal subunits, thereby inhibiting translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and inhibiting polypeptide synthesis. Antagonism has been demonstrated in vitro between erythromycin, lincomycin, chloramphenicol and clindamycin.

Benzoyl peroxide is an antibacterial agent which has been shown to be effective against Propionibacterium acnes, an anaerobe found in sebaceous follicles and comedones. The antibacterial action of benzoyl peroxide is believed to be due to the release of active oxygen.

Medication Guide

PATIENT INFORMATION

Patients using BENZAMYCIN (erythromycin) Topical Gel should receive the following information and instructions:

  1. This medication is to be used as directed by the physician. It is for external use only. Avoid contact with the eyes, nose, mouth, and all mucous membranes.
  2. This medication should not be used for any disorder other than that for which it was prescribed.
  3. Patients should not use any other topical acne preparation unless otherwise directed by physician.
  4. Patients should report to their physician any signs of local adverse reactions.
  5. BENZAMYCIN (erythromycin) ® Topical Gel may bleach hair or colored fabric.
  6. Keep product refrigerated and discard after 3 months.

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