"Plants produce round pollen grains. Individual grains are too tiny to see with the naked eye, but some can form large, visible clusters. For fertilization to take place and seeds to form in some plants, pollen must be moved from the flower of one"...
Mechanism of Action
Bepotastine is a topically active, direct H1-receptor antagonist and an inhibitor of the release of histamine from mast cells.
The extent of systemic exposure to bepotastine following topical ophthalmic administration of bepotastine besilate 1% and 1.5% ophthalmic solutions was evaluated in 12 healthy adults. Following one drop of 1% or 1.5% bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solution to both eyes four time daily (QID) for seven days, bepotastine plasma concentrations peaked at approximately one to two hours post-instillation. Maximum plasma concentrations for the 1% and 1.5% strengths were 5.1 ± 2.5 ng/mL and 7.3 ± 1.9 ng/mL, respectively. Plasma concentrations at 24 hours post-instillation were below the quantifiable limit (2ng/mL) in 11/12 subjects in the two dose groups.
The extent of protein binding of bepotastine is approximately 55% and independent of bepotastine concentration.
In vitro metabolism studies with human liver microsomes demonstrated that bepotastine is minimally metabolized by CYP450 isozymes. In vitro studies demonstrated that bepotastine besilate does not inhibit the metabolism of various cytochrome P450 substrates via inhibition of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. The effect of bepotastine besilate on the metabolism of substrates of CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2D6 was not studied. Bepotastine besilate has a low potential for drug interaction via inhibition of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19.
The main route of elimination of bepotastine besilate is urinary excretion (with approximately 75-90% excreted unchanged in urine).
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term dietary studies in mice and rats were conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of bepotastine besilate. Bepotastine besilate did not significantly induce neoplasms in mice receiving a nominal dose of up to 200 mg/kg/day for 21 months or rats receiving a nominal dose of up to 97 mg/kg/day for 24 months. These dose levels represent systemic exposures approximating 350 and 200 times that achieved with human topical ocular use.
The no observable adverse effect level for bepotastine besilate based on nominal dose levels in carcinogenicity tests were 18.7 to 19.9 mg/kg/day in mice and 9.6 to 9.8 mg/kg/day in rats (representing exposure margins of approximately 60 and 20 times the systemic exposure anticipated for human topical use).
There was no evidence of genotoxicity in the Ames test, in CHO cells (chromosome aberrations), in mouse hepatocytes (unscheduled DNA synthesis), or in the mouse micronucleus test.
When oral bepotastine was administered to male and female rats at doses up to 1,000 mg/kg/day, there was a slight reduction in fertility index and surviving fetuses. Infertility was not seen in rats given 200 mg/kg/day oral bepotastine besilate (approximately 3300 times the systemic concentration anticipated for topical ocular use in humans).
Clinical efficacy was evaluated in 2 conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) studies (237 patients). BEPREVE (bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solution) 1.5% was more effective than its vehicle for relieving ocular itching induced by an ocular allergen challenge, both at CAC 15 minutes post-dosing and a CAC 8 hours post dosing of BEPREVE.
The safety of BEPREVE was evaluated in a randomized clinical study of 861 subjects over a period of 6 weeks.
Last reviewed on RxList: 7/5/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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