"In laboratory tests, researchers have used electrical stimulation of retinal cells to produce the same patterns of activity that occur when the retina sees a moving object. Although more work remains, this is a step toward restoring natural, high"...
Topical Ophthalmic Use Only
NOT FOR INJECTION INTO THE EYE.
Besivance® is for topical ophthalmic use only, and should not be injected subconjunctivally, nor should it be introduced directly into the anterior chamber of the eye.
Growth of Resistant Organisms with Prolonged Use
As with other anti-infectives, prolonged use of Besivance® (besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension) 0.6% may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms, including fungi. If super-infection occurs, discontinue use and institute alternative therapy. Whenever clinical judgment dictates, the patient should be examined with the aid of magnification, such as slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and, where appropriate, fluorescein staining.
Avoidance of Contact Lenses
Patients should not wear contact lenses if they have signs or symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis or during the course of therapy with Besivance®.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term studies in animals to determine the carcinogenic potential of besifloxacin have not been performed.
No in vitro mutagenic activity of besifloxacin was observed in an Ames test (up to 3.33 mcg/plate) on bacterial tester strains Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. However, it was mutagenic in S. typhimurium strain TA102 and E. coli strain WP2(pKM101). Positive responses in these strains have been observed with other quinolones and are likely related to topoisomerase inhibition.
Besifloxacin induced chromosomal aberrations in CHO cells in vitro and it was positive in an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay at oral doses ≥ 1500 mg/kg. Besifloxacin did not induce unscheduled DNA synthesis in hepatocytes cultured from rats given the test compound up to 2,000 mg/ kg by the oral route. In a fertility and early embryonic development study in rats, besifloxacin did not impair the fertility of male or female rats at oral doses of up to 500 mg/kg/day. This is over 10,000 times higher than the recommended total daily human ophthalmic dose.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
Oral doses of besifloxacin up to 1000 mg/kg/day were not associated with visceral or skeletal malformations in rat pups in a study of embryo-fetal development, although this dose was associated with maternal toxicity (reduced body weight gain and food consumption) and maternal mortality. Increased post-implantation loss, decreased fetal body weights, and decreased fetal ossification were also observed. At this dose, the mean Cmax in the rat dams was approximately 20 mcg/mL, > 45,000 times the mean plasma concentrations measured in humans. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for this embryo-fetal development study was 100 mg/kg/day (Cmax, 5 mcg/mL, > 11,000 times the mean plasma concentrations measured in humans).
In a prenatal and postnatal development study in rats, the NOAELs for both fetal and maternal toxicity were also 100 mg/kg/day. At 1000 mg/kg/day, the pups weighed significantly less than controls and had a reduced neonatal survival rate. Attainment of developmental landmarks and sexual maturation were delayed, although surviving pups from this dose group that were reared to maturity did not demonstrate deficits in behavior, including activity, learning and memory, and their reproductive capacity appeared normal.
Since there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women, Besivance® should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Besifloxacin has not been measured in human milk, although it can be presumed to be excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when Besivance® is administered to a nursing mother.
The safety and effectiveness of Besivance® in infants below one year of age have not been established. The efficacy of Besivance® in treating bacterial conjunctivitis in pediatric patients one year or older has been demonstrated in controlled clinical trials [see Clinical Studies].
There is no evidence that the ophthalmic administration of quinolones has any effect on weight bearing joints, even though systemic administration of some quinolones has been shown to cause arthropathy in immature animals.
No overall differences in safety and effectiveness have been observed between elderly and younger patients.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/26/2012
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