"Nov. 20, 2012 -- Oral contraceptives should be made available without a prescription to reduce unintended pregnancies, according to a newly published opinion by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG).
The following serious adverse reactions with the use of COCs are discussed elsewhere in the labeling:
- Serious cardiovascular events and stroke [see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Vascular events [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Liver disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Adverse reactions commonly reported by COC users are:
- Irregular uterine bleeding
- Breast tenderness
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, the adverse reaction rates observed cannot be directly compared to rates in other clinical trials and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Contraception, Acne and Folate Supplementation Clinical Trials
The data provided reflect the experience with the use of YAZ (3 mg DRSP/0.02 mg EE), in the adequate and well-controlled studies for contraception (N=1,056), for moderate acne vulgaris (N=536) and folate supplementation (N=379).
For contraception, a Phase 3, multicenter, multinational, open-label study was conducted to evaluate safety and efficacy up to one year in 1,027 women aged 17-36 who took at least one dose of YAZ. A second Phase 3 study was a single center, open-label, active-controlled study to evaluate the effect of 7 28-day cycles of YAZ on carbohydrate metabolism, lipids and hemostasis in 29 women aged 18-35. For acne, two multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies, in 536 women aged 14–45 with moderate acne vulgaris who took at least one dose of YAZ, evaluated the safety and efficacy during up to 6 cycles. For folate supplementation, the primary efficacy study using Beyaz was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled US trial in 379 healthy women aged 18- 40 who were treated with Beyaz or YAZ for up to 24 weeks.
The adverse reactions seen across the 3 indications overlapped, and are reported using the frequencies from the pooled dataset. The most common adverse reactions ( ≥ 2% of users) were: headache/migraine (5.9%), menstrual irregularities (including vaginal hemorrhage [primarily spotting], metrorrhagia and menorrhagia) (4.1%), nausea/vomiting (3.5%), and breast pain/tenderness (3.2%).
PMDD Clinical Trials
Safety data from trials for the indication of PMDD are reported separately due to differences in study design and setting in the OC, Acne and Folate Supplementation studies as compared to the PMDD clinical program.
Two (one parallel and one crossover designed) multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials for the secondary indication of treating the symptoms of PMDD evaluated safety and efficacy of YAZ during up to 3 cycles among 285 women aged 18–42, diagnosed with PMDD and who took at least one dose of YAZ.
Common adverse reactions ( ≥ 2% of users) were: menstrual irregularities (including vaginal hemorrhage [primarily spotting] and metrorrhagia) (24.9%), nausea (15.8%), headache (13.0%), breast tenderness (10.5%), fatigue (4.2%), irritability (2.8%), decreased libido (2.8%), increased weight (2.5%), and affect lability (2.1%).
Adverse Reactions ( ≥1%) Leading to Study Discontinuation:
Contraception Clinical Trials
Of 1,056 women, 6.6% discontinued from the clinical trials due to an adverse reaction; the most frequent adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were headache/migraine (1.6%) and nausea/vomiting (1.0%).
Acne Clinical Trials
Of 536 women, 5.4% discontinued from the clinical trials due to an adverse reaction; the most frequent adverse reaction leading to discontinuation was menstrual irregularities (including menometrorrhagia, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia and vaginal hemorrhage) (2.2%) .
Folate Clinical Trial
Of 285 women, 4.6% who used Beyaz or YAZ discontinued from the clinical trials due to an adverse reaction; no reaction leading to discontinuation occurred in ≥ 1% of women.
PMDD Clinical Trials
Of 285 women, 11.6% discontinued from the clinical trials due to an adverse reaction; the most frequent adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were: nausea/vomiting (4.6%), menstrual irregularity (including vaginal hemorrhage, menorrhagia, menstrual disorder, menstruation irregular and metrorrhagia) (4.2%), fatigue (1.8%), breast tenderness (1.4%), depression (1.4%), headache (1.1%), and irritability (1.1%).
Serious Adverse Reactions
Acne Clinical Trials: none reported in the clinical trials
PMDD Clinical Trials: cervical dysplasia
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of YAZ. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Adverse reactions are grouped into System Organ Classes, and ordered by frequency.
Vascular disorders: Venous and arterial thromboembolic events (including pulmonary emboli, deep vein thrombosis, cerebral thrombosis, retinal thrombosis, myocardial infarction and stroke), hypertension (including hypertensive crisis)
Hepatobiliary disorders: Gallbladder disease, liver function disturbances, liver tumors
Immune system disorders: Hypersensitivity (including anaphylactic reaction)
Gastrointestinal disorders: Inflammatory bowel disease
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: Systemic lupus erythematosus
Read the Beyaz (drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol/ levomefolate calcium tablets and levomefolate calcuim tablets) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Consult the labeling of all concurrently-used drugs to obtain further information about interactions with hormonal contraceptives or the potential for enzyme alterations.
Effects of Other Drugs on Combined Oral Contraceptives
Substances diminishing the efficacy of COCs
Drugs or herbal products that induce certain enzymes, including cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), may decrease the effectiveness of COCs or increase breakthrough bleeding. Some drugs or herbal products that may decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives include phenytoin, barbiturates, carbamazepine, bosentan, felbamate, griseofulvin, oxcarbazepine, rifampicin, topiramate and products containing St. John's wort. Interactions between oral contraceptives and other drugs may lead to breakthrough bleeding and/or contraceptive failure. Counsel women to use an alternative method of contraception or a back-up method when enzyme inducers are used with COCs, and to continue back-up contraception for 28 days after discontinuing the enzyme inducer to ensure contraceptive reliability.
Substances increasing the plasma concentrations of COCs
Co-administration of atorvastatin and certain COCs containing EE increase AUC values for EE by approximately 20%. Ascorbic acid and acetaminophen may increase plasma EE concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. CYP3A4 inhibitors such as itraconazole or ketoconazole may increase plasma hormone concentrations.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/ Hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Significant changes (increase or decrease) in the plasma concentrations of estrogen and progestin have been noted in some cases of co-administration with HIV/HCV protease inhibitors or with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
There have been reports of pregnancy while taking hormonal contraceptives and antibiotics, but clinical pharmacokinetic studies have not shown consistent effects of antibiotics on plasma concentrations of synthetic steroids.
Effect on DRSP
The main metabolites of DRSP in human plasma are generated without involvement of the CYP system. Inhibitors of this enzyme system are therefore unlikely to influence the metabolism of DRSP.
Effects of Combined Oral Contraceptives on Other Drugs
COCs containing EE may inhibit the metabolism of other compounds. COCs have been shown to significantly decrease plasma concentrations of lamotrigine, likely due to induction of lamotrigine glucuronidation. This may reduce seizure control; therefore, dosage adjustments of lamotrigine may be necessary. Consult the labeling of the concurrently-used drug to obtain further information about interactions with COCs or the potential for enzyme alterations.
In vitro and clinical studies did not indicate an inhibitory potential of DRSP towards human CYP enzymes at clinically relevant concentrations [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Potential to Increase Serum Potassium Concentration: There is a potential for an increase in serum potassium concentration in women taking Beyaz with other drugs that may increase serum potassium concentration [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Effects of Folates on Other Drugs
Folates may modify the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of certain antifolate drugs, e.g., antiepileptics (such as phenytoin), methotrexate or pyrimethamine, and may result in a decreased pharmacological effect of the antifolate drug.
Effects of Other Drugs on Folates
Several drugs have been reported to reduce folate concentrations by inhibition of the dihydrofolate reductase enzyme (e.g., methotrexate and sulfasalazine) or by reducing folate absorption (e.g., cholestyramine), or via unknown mechanisms (e.g., antiepileptics such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone and valproic acid).
Interference with Laboratory Tests
The use of contraceptive steroids may influence the results of certain laboratory tests, such as coagulation factors, lipids, glucose tolerance, and binding proteins. DRSP causes an increase in plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone induced by its mild antimineralocorticoid activity. Folates may mask vitamin B12 deficiency. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.]
Read the Beyaz Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/22/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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