Edmond Hooker, MD, DrPH
Dr. Eddie Hooker is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Health Services Administration at Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is also an Associate Clinical Professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Louisville and at Wright State University. His areas of expertise include emergency medicine, epidemiology, health-services management, and public health.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
- What is bioterrorism?
- What are the biological agents that can be utilized for bioterrorism?
- What are the causes of bioterrorism in food?
- What are the sources for detailed information on bioterrorism?
- How can I prepare myself for a bioterrorism attack?
- What are the warning signs of a bioterrorism attack?
- What should I do if there has been a bioterrorism attack?
- How do I know if I have been exposed to a bioterrorism agent?
- Should I have some antibiotics on hand just in case I get exposed?
What is bioterrorism?
Bioterrorism is a form of terrorism where there is the intentional release of biological agents (bacteria, viruses, or other germs). This is also referred to as germ warfare. Terrorism is defined by the United States government as the "unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives." In addition to biological agents, terrorists can also utilize chemical agents and nuclear bombs. While a biological agent may injure or kill people, animals, or plants, the goal for the terrorist is to further their social and political goals. Many biological agents are found in nature; however, they can be modified by the terrorist to make them more dangerous. Some of these agents can be transmitted from person to person, and the infection may take hours or days to become apparent.
What are the biological agents that can be utilized for bioterrorism?
While any germ, bacteria, or virus could potentially be utilized by terrorist, there are a number of biological agents that have been recognized as being more likely to be utilized. The reason for these agents being of concern is based on their availability to terrorists and the ease by which these agents can be disseminated. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed a classification system for biological terror agents, which is available on their web site (Categories). The classification is based on the likelihood of the agent being used and the risk posed by each agent. The agents (and the diseases they cause) are listed in table 1, including hyperlinks for those wishing to learn more about a specific agent or disease. However, it is almost impossible for most people to memorize all the details about each of these agents. It is more important for the general public to understand the risk of bioterrorism and the appropriate response to a terrorist attack.
|Table 1: BIOTERRORISM AGENTS AND THE DISEASES THEY CAUSE|
|Biologic agent||Disease caused by the agent|
|Clostridium botulinum toxin||Botulism|
|Filoviruses (for example, Ebola, Marburg) and arenaviruses (for example, Lassa, Machupo)||Viral hemorrhagic fevers|
|Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens||Food poisoning|
|Salmonella species, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella||Food poisoning|
|Coxiella burnetii||Q fever|
|Ricinus communis (castor beans)||Ricin toxin poisoning|
|Staphylococcal enterotoxin B||Food poisoning|
|Rickettsia prowazekii||Epidemic typhus|
|Alphaviruses (for example, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis) and flaviviruses (for example, West Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, dengue fever)||Viral encephalitis|
|Mycobacterium tuberculosis||MDR TB and XDR TB|
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