Bipolar Disorder (cont.)
Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD
Dr. Roxanne Dryden-Edwards is an adult, child, and adolescent psychiatrist. She is a former Chair of the Committee on Developmental Disabilities for the American Psychiatric Association, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, and Medical Director of the National Center for Children and Families in Bethesda, Maryland.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Bipolar disorder facts
- What is bipolar disorder?
- What is the history of bipolar disorder?
- What are the types of bipolar disorder?
- What are bipolar disorder causes and risk factors?
- What are bipolar disorder symptoms and signs in adults, teenagers, and children?
- What tests do health-care professionals use to diagnose bipolar disorder?
- What illnesses coexist with bipolar disorder?
- What are bipolar disorder medications and other treatments? Are there any home remedies or alternative treatments for bipolar disorder?
- How is bipolar disorder treated during pregnancy and the postpartum period?
- What are complications and the prognosis/effects over time of bipolar disorder?
- Is it possible to prevent bipolar disorder?
- Where can people find more information about bipolar disorder, bipolar disorder support groups, and doctors who treat it?
- Where can people find support to help them or someone they know cope with bipolar disorder?
- Bipolar Disorder (Mania) FAQs
- Find a local Psychiatrist in your town
What are bipolar disorder symptoms and signs in adults, teenagers, and children?
In order to qualify for the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, a person must experience at least one manic episode. Characteristics of mania must last at least a week (unless it is part of mixed features) and include
- elevated, expansive, or irritable mood;
- racing thoughts;
- pressured speech (rapid, excessive, and frenzied speaking);
- decreased need for sleep;
- grandiose beliefs (for example, false beliefs of superiority or failures);
- tangential speech (repeatedly changing conversational topics to topics that are hardly related);
- restlessness/increased goal-directed activity;
- impulsivity, poor judgment or engaging in risky behavior (like spending sprees, promiscuity, or excess desire for sex).
Symptoms of the manic episode of early onset bipolar disorder tend to include outbursts of anger, rage, and aggression, as well as irritability, as opposed to the expansive, excessively elevated mood seen in adults. The adolescent with bipolar disorder is more likely to exhibit depression and mixed episodes with rapid changes in mood. Despite differences in the symptoms of bipolar disorder in teens and children compared to adults, many who are diagnosed with certain kinds of pediatric bipolar disorder continue to have those symptoms as adults. Symptoms of bipolar disorder in women tend to include more depression and anxiety and a rapid cycling pattern compared to symptoms in men.
Although a major depressive episode is not required for the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, such episodes often alternate with manic episodes. In fact, persistent sadness occurs more often than mania in many people with bipolar disorder.
Characteristics of depressive episodes include a number of the following symptoms: persistently depressed or irritable mood; feelings of apprehension; frequent crying, inability to feel pleasure; loss of interest in previously pleasurable activities; apathy, low motivation; increased or decreased appetite, weight loss or weight gain, difficulty falling asleep; excess sleepiness, agitation or lack of activity; fatigue/low energy; feelings of worthlessness; lack of concentration; slowness in activity and thought; inappropriate feelings of guilt; hopelessness; thoughts of death, self-harm or suicidal thoughts, plans, or actions.
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