(Cancer of the Urinary Bladder)
Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
- Bladder Cancer Facts
- What is the bladder?
- What are the layers of the bladder?
- What is bladder cancer?
- What is the burden of bladder cancer in the U.S.?
- What are the types of bladder cancer?
- What are bladder cancer causes and risk factors?
- What are bladder cancer symptoms and signs?
- How is bladder cancer diagnosed?
- How is bladder cancer staging determined?
- What is bladder cancer grading?
- What is transurethral surgery or "TURBT" for bladder cancer?
- What is the treatment for superficial bladder cancer?
- What is surveillance for bladder cancer?
- What is the treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer?
- What is chemotherapy for bladder cancer?
- What is the prognosis for bladder cancer?
- Can bladder cancer be prevented?
- Where can people find more information on bladder cancer?
- What research is being done on bladder cancer?
- Patient Comments: Bladder Cancer - Effective Treatment
- Patient Comments: Bladder Cancer - Share Your Experience
- Patient Comments: Bladder Cancer - Symptoms
- Patient Comments: Bladder Cancer - Transurethral Surgery Experience
- Patient Comments: Bladder Cancer - Chemotherapy Experience
- Find a local Oncologist in your town
Bladder Cancer Facts
- Bladder cancer is one of the common cancers affecting men and women.
- The most common symptom is bleeding in the urine (hematuria).
- Cigarette smoking is the most significant risk factor with smokers three to four times more likely to get the disease than nonsmokers.
- Bladder cancer can be subdivided into superficial and muscle invasive, with the former having much better treatment outcomes than the latter.
- The initial treatment for bladder cancer is transurethral resection (TURBT), which removes the tumor from the bladder and provides information regarding stage and grade of the tumor.
- Low-grade superficial tumors (Ta) are treated with TURBT followed by an optional instillation of a single dose of a chemotherapy medication in the bladder to reduce recurrence rates. These tumors have high recurrence rates but a very low chance of progression to higher stages.
- High-grade T1 tumors have high chances of recurrence and progression and may need additional treatment in the form on BCG or chemotherapy instillation in the bladder. Patients unresponsive to these may be best treated by radical cystectomy.
- Radical cystectomy provides the best chances of cure in patients with muscle invasive disease.
- Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is used in patients with metastatic disease at presentation or those in which bladder cancer cells are present outside the bladder wall or in lymph nodes during radical cystectomy.
What is the bladder?
The urinary bladder, or the bladder, is a hollow organ present in the pelvis. Most of it lies behind the pubic bone of the pelvis but when full it can extend up into the lower part of the abdomen. Its primary function is to store urine that drains into it from the kidney through tube-like structures called the ureters. The ureters from both the kidneys open into the urinary bladder. The bladder forms a low-pressure reservoir which gradually stretches out as urine fills into it. In males, the prostate gland is located adjacent to the base of the bladder where urethra joins the bladder. From time to time, the muscular wall of the bladder contracts to expel urine through the urinary passage (urethra) into the outside world.
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