Blood Transfusion (cont.)
Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP
Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
In this Article
- Blood transfusion facts
- What is a blood transfusion?
- Autologous blood (using your own blood)
- Donor blood
- What are different blood types and groups?
- NHLBI on blood transfusion
- What is a blood transfusion?
- What are the types of blood transfusions?
- Who needs a blood transfusion?
- What to expect before a blood transfusion?
- What to expect during a blood transfusion?
- What to expect after a blood transfusion?
- What are the risks and complications of a blood transfusion?
All donor blood is tested for safety making its risks very small, but no screening program is perfect and risks, such as contraction of the hepatitis virus or other infectious disease still exist.
Volunteer blood: blood collected from the community blood supply (blood banks). This has the advantage of being readily available, and can be life-saving when your own blood is not available. The disadvantage is that there is a risk of disease transmission, such as hepatitis, and allergic reactions.
Designated donor blood:blood is collected from the donors you select. You can select people with your own blood type who you feel are safe donors. Like volunteer blood, there is still a risk of disease transmission, such as hepatitis and AIDS, and allergic reactions. This process usually requires several days for advanced donation. It may not necessarily be safer than volunteer donor blood.
What are different blood types and groups?
Almost all cells, including red blood cells, have molecules on their surface that have important roles to play in interactions with cells of the immune system. There are multiple sites on each cell for the molecules, and at each site one of several related molecules may reside. Each site has only a limited number of different molecules that can reside there; each site has its own, unique molecules. Each molecule that can reside at any one site is referred to (defined) as a blood type, and the entire group of related molecules that can occupy a single site is referred to as a blood group. A blood group is an inherited feature. For example, two series of blood types constitute a blood group system known as the Rh or the ABO systems.
Because blood types are responsible for the interactions between cells such as red blood cells and the immune system, it is important that the blood types of the donor and the recipient of red blood cells match. If the donor and recipient's blood types are not matched, the recipient's immune system will destroy the donor's cells.
There are four blood types:
- AB, or
Every person has one of the above four blood types. In addition, each person's blood is either:
- Rh-positive, or
So, for example, if a person has type A blood, it's either type A positive or type A negative.
Type O blood - universal donors
- Type O blood is safe for just about everyone. People with type O blood are referred to as universal donors; and type O blood is used for emergencies in which there is no time to test a person's blood type.
Type AB blood - universal recipients
- Individuals who have type AB blood are referred to as universal recipients. This means that they can receive any type of blood.
Rh-positive and Rh-negative
- People who have Rh-positive blood can receive Rh-positive or Rh-negative blood.
- If a person has Rh-negative blood, they should only receive Rh-negative blood.
- Rh-negative blood is used for emergencies when there is not time to test a person's Rh type.
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