"May 4, 2011 -- The osteoporosis drugs known as bisphosphonates increase the risk of getting unusual thigh bone fractures, as experts have suspected, according to a new Swedish study.
But these fractures are infrequent and the risk is "...
Mechanism Of Action
The action of ibandronate on bone tissue is based on its affinity for hydroxyapatite, which is part of the mineral matrix of bone. Ibandronate inhibits osteoclast activity and reduces bone resorption and turnover. In postmenopausal women, it reduces the elevated rate of bone turnover, leading to, on average, a net gain in bone mass.
Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mass and increased fracture risk, most commonly at the spine, hip, and wrist. The diagnosis can be confirmed by a finding of low bone mass, evidence of fracture on x-ray, a history of osteoporotic fracture, or height loss or kyphosis indicative of vertebral fracture. While osteoporosis occurs in both men and women, it is most common among women following menopause. In healthy humans, bone formation and resorption are closely linked; old bone is resorbed and replaced by newly formed bone. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, bone resorption exceeds bone formation, leading to bone loss and increased risk of fracture. After menopause, the risk of fractures of the spine and hip increases; approximately 40% of 50-year-old women will experience an osteoporosis-related fracture during their remaining lifetimes.
BONIVA produced biochemical changes indicative of dose-dependent inhibition of bone resorption, including decreases of biochemical markers of bone collagen degradation (such as deoxypyridinoline, and cross-linked C-telopeptide of Type I collagen) in the daily dose range of 0.25 mg to 5 mg and once-monthly doses from 100 mg to 150 mg in postmenopausal women.
Treatment with 2.5 mg daily BONIVA resulted in decreases in biochemical markers of bone turnover, including urinary C-terminal telopeptide of Type I collagen (uCTX) and serum osteocalcin, to levels similar to those in premenopausal women. Changes in markers of bone formation were observed later than changes in resorption markers, as expected, due to the coupled nature of bone resorption and formation. Treatment with 2.5 mg daily BONIVA decreased levels of uCTX within 1 month of starting treatment and decreased levels of osteocalcin within 3 months. Bone turnover markers reached a nadir of approximately 64% below baseline values by 6 months of treatment and remained stable with continued treatment for up to 3 years. Following treatment discontinuation, there is a return to pretreatment baseline rates of elevated bone resorption associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis.
In a 1-year, study comparing once-monthly vs. once-daily oral dosing regimens, the median decrease from baseline in serum CTX values was -76% for patients treated with the 150 mg once-monthly regimen and -67% for patients treated with the 2.5 mg daily regimen. In a 1-year, prevention study comparing BONIVA 150 mg once-monthly to placebo, the median placebo-subtracted decrease in sCTX was -49.8%.
The absorption of oral ibandronate occurs in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Plasma concentrations increase in a dose-linear manner up to 50 mg oral intake and increases nonlinearly above this dose.
Following oral dosing, the time to maximum observed plasma ibandronate concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 2 hours (median 1 hour) in fasted healthy postmenopausal women. The mean oral bioavailability of 2.5 mg ibandronate was about 0.6% compared to intravenous dosing. The extent of absorption is impaired by food or beverages (other than plain water). The oral bioavailability of ibandronate is reduced by about 90% when BONIVA is administered concomitantly with a standard breakfast in comparison with bioavailability observed in fasted subjects. There is no meaningful reduction in bioavailability when ibandronate is taken at least 60 minutes before a meal. However, both bioavailability and the effect on bone mineral density (BMD) are reduced when food or beverages are taken less than 60 minutes following an ibandronate dose.
After absorption, ibandronate either rapidly binds to bone or is excreted into urine. In humans, the apparent terminal volume of distribution is at least 90 L, and the amount of dose removed from the circulation via the bone is estimated to be 40% to 50% of the circulating dose. In vitro protein binding in human serum was 99.5% to 90.9% over an ibandronate concentration range of 2 to 10 ng/mL in one study and approximately 85.7% over a concentration range of 0.5 to 10 ng/mL in another study.
Ibandronate does not undergo hepatic metabolism and does not inhibit the hepatic cytochrome P450 system. Ibandronate is eliminated by renal excretion. Based on a rat study, the ibandronate secretory pathway does not appear to include known acidic or basic transport systems involved in the excretion of other drugs. There is no evidence that ibandronate is metabolized in humans.
The portion of ibandronate that is not removed from the circulation via bone absorption is eliminated unchanged by the kidney (approximately 50% to 60% of the absorbed dose). Unabsorbed ibandronate is eliminated unchanged in the feces.
The plasma elimination of ibandronate is multiphasic. Its renal clearance and distribution into bone accounts for a rapid and early decline in plasma concentrations, reaching 10% of the Cmax within 3 or 8 hours after intravenous or oral administration, respectively. This is followed by a slower clearance phase as ibandronate redistributes back into the blood from bone. The observed apparent terminal half-life for ibandronate is generally dependent on the dose studied and on assay sensitivity. The observed apparent terminal half-life for the 150 mg ibandronate tablet upon oral administration to healthy postmenopausal women ranges from 37 to 157 hours.
Total clearance of ibandronate is low, with average values in the range 84 to 160 mL/min. Renal clearance (about 60 mL/min in healthy postmenopausal females) accounts for 50% to 60% of total clearance and is related to creatinine clearance. The difference between the apparent total and renal clearances likely reflects bone uptake of the drug.
The pharmacokinetics of ibandronate has not been studied in patients less than 18 years of age.
Because ibandronate is not known to be metabolized, the only difference in ibandronate elimination for geriatric patients versus younger patients is expected to relate to progressive age-related changes in renal function.
The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of ibandronate are similar in both men and women.
Pharmacokinetic differences due to race have not been studied.
Renal clearance of ibandronate in patients with various degrees of renal impairment is linearly related to creatinine clearance (CLcr).
Following a single dose of 0.5 mg ibandronate by intravenous administration, patients with CLcr 40 to 70 mL/min had 55% higher exposure (AUC∞) than the exposure observed in subjects with CLcr greater than 90 mL/min. Patients with CLcr less than 30 mL/min had more than a two-fold increase in exposure compared to the exposure for healthy subjects (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
No studies have been performed to assess the pharmacokinetics of ibandronate in patients with hepatic impairment because ibandronate is not metabolized in the human liver.
Drug Interaction Studies
Products containing calcium and other multivalent cations (such as aluminum, magnesium, iron), including milk, food, and antacids are likely to interfere with absorption of ibandronate, which is consistent with findings in animal studies.
A pharmacokinetic interaction study in healthy volunteers demonstrated that 75 mg ranitidine (25 mg injected intravenously 90 and 15 minutes before and 30 minutes after ibandronate administration) increased the oral bioavailability of 10 mg ibandronate by about 20%. This degree of increase is not considered to be clinically relevant.
Animal Reproductive And Developmental Toxicology
In female rats given oral doses of 1, 4, or 16 mg/kg/day beginning 14 days before mating and continuing through lactation, maternal deaths were observed at the time of delivery in all dose groups (greater than or equal to 3 times human exposure at the recommended daily oral dose of 2.5 mg or greater than or equal to 1 times human exposure at the recommended once-monthly oral dose of 150 mg, based on AUC comparison). Perinatal pup loss in dams given 16 mg/kg/day (45 times human exposure at the recommended daily oral dose of 2.5 mg and 13 times human exposure at the recommended once-monthly oral dose of 150 mg, based on AUC comparison) was likely related to maternal dystocia. In pregnant rats given oral doses of 6, 20, or 60 mg/kg/day during gestation, calcium supplementation (32 mg/kg/day by subcutaneous injection from gestation day 18 to parturition) did not completely prevent dystocia and periparturient mortality in any of the treated groups (greater than or equal to 16 times human exposure at the recommended daily oral dose of 2.5 mg and greater than or equal to 4.6 times human exposure at the recommended once-monthly oral dose of 150 mg, based on AUC comparison). A low incidence of postimplantation loss was observed in rats treated from 14 days before mating throughout lactation or during gestation, only at doses causing maternal dystocia and periparturient mortality. In pregnant rats dosed orally with 1, 5, or 20 mg/kg/day from gestation day 17 through lactation day 21 (following closure of the hard palate through weaning), maternal toxicity, including dystocia and mortality, fetal perinatal and postnatal mortality, were observed at doses greater than or equal to 5 mg/kg/day (equivalent to human exposure at the recommended daily oral dose of 2.5 mg and greater than or equal to 4 times human exposure at the recommended once-monthly oral dose of 150 mg, based on AUC comparison). Periparturient mortality has also been observed with other bisphosphonates and appears to be a class effect related to inhibition of skeletal calcium mobilization resulting in hypocalcemia and dystocia.
Exposure of pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis resulted in an increased fetal incidence of RPU (renal pelvis ureter) syndrome at oral doses greater than or equal to 10 mg/kg/day (greater than or equal to 30 times human exposure at the recommended daily oral dose of 2.5 mg and greater than or equal to 9 times human exposure at the recommended once-monthly oral dose of 150 mg, based on AUC comparison). Impaired pup neuromuscular development (cliff avoidance test) was observed at 16 mg/kg/day when dams were dosed from 14 days before mating through lactation (45 times human exposure at the recommended daily oral dose of 2.5 mg and 13 times human exposure at the recommended once-monthly oral dose of 150 mg, based on AUC comparison).
In pregnant rabbits given oral doses of 1, 4, or 20 mg/kg/day during gestation, dose-related maternal mortality was observed in all treatment groups (greater than or equal to 8 times the recommended human daily oral dose of 2.5 mg and greater than or equal to 4 times the recommended human once-monthly oral dose of 150 mg, based on body surface area comparison, mg/m²). The deaths occurred prior to parturition and were associated with lung edema and hemorrhage. No significant fetal anomalies were observed.
Animal studies have shown that ibandronate is an inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. In the Schenk assay in growing rats, ibandronate inhibited bone resorption and increased bone volume, based on histologic examination of the tibial metaphyses. There was no evidence of impaired mineralization at the highest dose of 5 mg/kg/day (subcutaneously), which is 1000 times the lowest antiresorptive dose of 0.005 mg/kg/day in this model, and 5000 times the optimal antiresorptive dose of 0.001 mg/kg/day in the aged ovariectomized rat. This indicates that BONIVA administered at therapeutic doses is unlikely to induce osteomalacia.
Long-term daily or once-monthly intermittent administration of ibandronate to ovariectomized rats or monkeys was associated with suppression of bone turnover and increases in bone mass. In both rats and monkeys, vertebral BMD, trabecular density, and biomechanical strength were increased dose-dependently at doses up to 15 times the recommended human daily oral dose of 2.5 mg, or cumulative monthly doses up to 8 times (rat) or 6 times (monkey) the recommended human once-monthly oral dose of 150 mg, based on body surface area (mg/m²) or AUC comparison. In monkeys, ibandronate maintained the positive correlation between bone mass and strength at the ulna and femoral neck. New bone formed in the presence of ibandronate had normal histologic structure and did not show mineralization defects.
Treatment Of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
The effectiveness and safety of BONIVA were demonstrated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational study (Treatment Study) of 2946 women aged 55 to 80 years, who were on average 21 years postmenopause, who had lumbar spine BMD 2 to 5 SD below the premenopausal mean (T-score) in at least one vertebra [L1-L4], and who had 1 to 4 prevalent vertebral fractures. BONIVA was evaluated at oral doses of 2.5 mg daily and 20 mg intermittently. The main outcome measure was the occurrence of new radiographically diagnosed vertebral fractures after 3 years of treatment. The diagnosis of an incident vertebral fracture was based on both qualitative diagnosis by the radiologist and quantitative morphometric criterion. The morphometric criterion required the dual occurrence of 2 events: a relative height ratio or relative height reduction in a vertebral body of at least 20%, together with at least a 4 mm absolute decrease in height. All women received 400 international units vitamin D and 500 mg calcium supplementation per day.
Effect on Fracture Incidence
BONIVA 2.5 mg daily significantly reduced the incidence of new vertebral (primary efficacy measure) and of new and worsening vertebral fractures. Over the course of the 3-year study, the risk for vertebral fracture was 9.6% in the placebo-treated women and 4.7% in the women treated with BONIVA 2.5 mg (p < 0.001) (see Table 3).
Table 3 : Effect of BONIVA on the Incidence of
Vertebral Fracture in the 3-Year Osteoporosis Treatment Study*
|Proportion of Patients with Fracture (%)|
|BONIVA 2.5 mg Daily
|Absolute Risk Reduction (%) 95% CI||Relative Risk Reduction (%) 95% CI|
|New Vertebral Fracture 0-3 Year||9.6||4.7||4.9
|New and Worsening Vertebral Fracture 0-3 Year||10.4||5.1||5.3
|Clinical (Symptomatic) Vertebral Fracture 0-3 Year||5.3||2.8||2.5
|*The endpoint value is the
value at the study's last time point, 3 years, for all patients who had a
fracture identified at that time; otherwise, the last postbaseline value prior
to the study's last time point is used.
**p=0.0003 vs. placebo
BONIVA 2.5 mg daily did not reduce the incidence of nonvertebral fractures (secondary efficacy measure). There was a similar number of nonvertebral osteoporotic fractures at 3 years reported in women treated with BONIVA 2.5 mg daily [9.1%, (95% CI: 7.1%, 11.1%)] and placebo [8.2%, (95% CI: 6.3%, 10.2%)]. The two treatment groups were also similar with regard to the number of fractures reported at the individual nonvertebral sites: pelvis, femur, wrist, forearm, rib, and hip.
Bone Mineral Density (BMD)
BONIVA significantly increased BMD at the lumbar spine and hip relative to treatment with placebo. In the 3-year osteoporosis treatment study, BONIVA 2.5 mg daily produced increases in lumbar spine BMD that were progressive over 3 years of treatment and were statistically significant relative to placebo at 6 months and at all later time points. Lumbar spine BMD increased by 6.4% after 3 years of treatment with 2.5 mg daily BONIVA compared with 1.4% in the placebo group. Table 4 displays the significant increases in BMD seen at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter compared to placebo.
Table 4 : Mean Percent Change in BMD from Baseline to
Endpoint in Patients Treated Daily with BONIVA 2.5 mg or Placebo in the 3-Year
Osteoporosis Treatment Study*
|Placebo||BONIVA 2.5 mg Daily|
|*The endpoint value is the value at the study's last time point, 3 years, for all patients who had BMD measured at that time; otherwise, the last postbaseline value prior to the study's last time point is used.|
The histological analysis of bone biopsies showed bone of normal quality and no indication of osteomalacia or a mineralization defect.
The effectiveness and safety of BONIVA once-monthly were demonstrated in a randomized, double-blind, multinational, noninferiority trial in 1602 women aged 54 to 81 years, who were on average 18 years postmenopause, and had L2-L4 lumbar spine BMD T-score below -2.5 SD at baseline. The main outcome measure was the comparison of the percentage change from baseline in lumbar spine BMD after 1 year of treatment with once-monthly ibandronate (100 mg, 150 mg) to daily ibandronate (2.5 mg). All patients received 400 international units vitamin D and 500 mg calcium supplementation per day.
BONIVA 150 mg once-monthly (n=327) was shown to be noninferior to BONIVA 2.5 mg daily (n=318) in lumbar spine BMD in a 1-year, double-blind, multicenter study of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. In the primary efficacy analysis (per-protocol population), the mean increases from baseline in lumbar spine BMD at 1 year were 3.86% (95% CI: 3.40%, 4.32%) in the 2.5 mg daily group and 4.85% (95% CI: 4.41%, 5.29%) in the 150 mg once-monthly group; the mean difference between 2.5 mg daily and 150 mg once-monthly was 0.99% (95% CI: 0.38%, 1.60%), which was statistically significant (p=0.002). The results of the intent-to-treat analysis were consistent with the primary efficacy analysis. The 150 mg once-monthly group also had consistently higher BMD increases at the other skeletal sites compared to the 2.5 mg daily group.
Prevention Of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
The safety and effectiveness of BONIVA 2.5 mg daily for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis were demonstrated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 2-year study (Prevention Study) of 653 postmenopausal women without osteoporosis at baseline. Women were aged 41 to 82 years, were on average 8.5 years postmenopause, and had lumbar spine BMD T-scores greater than -2.5. Women were stratified according to time since menopause (1 to 3 years, greater than 3 years) and baseline lumbar spine BMD (T-score: greater than -1, -1 to -2.5). The study compared daily BONIVA at three dose levels (0.5 mg, 1.0 mg, 2.5 mg) with placebo. All women received 500 mg of supplemental calcium per day.
The primary efficacy measure was the change in BMD of lumbar spine after 2 years of treatment. BONIVA 2.5 mg daily resulted in a mean increase in lumbar spine BMD of 3.1% compared with placebo following 2 years of treatment. Increases in BMD were seen at 6 months and at all later time points. Irrespective of the time since menopause or the degree of pre-existing bone loss, treatment with BONIVA resulted in a higher BMD response at the lumbar spine compared with placebo across all four baseline strata [time since menopause (1 to 3 years, greater than 3 years) and baseline lumbar spine BMD (T-score: greater than -1, -1 to -2.5)].
Compared with placebo, treatment with BONIVA 2.5 mg daily increased BMD of the total hip by 1.8%, the femoral neck by 2.0%, and the trochanter by 2.1%.
The safety and effectiveness of BONIVA 150 mg once-monthly for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis were demonstrated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 1-year study (Monthly Prevention Study) of 160 postmenopausal women with low bone mass at baseline (T-score of -1 to -2.5). Women, aged 46 to 60 years, were on average 5.4 years postmenopause. All women received 400 international units of vitamin D and 500 mg calcium supplementation daily.
The primary efficacy measure was the relative change in BMD at the lumbar spine after 1 year of treatment. BONIVA 150 mg once-monthly resulted in a mean increase in lumbar spine BMD of 4.12% (95% confidence interval 2.96 – 5.28) compared with placebo following 1 year of treatment (p < 0.0001), based on a 3.73% and -0.39% mean change in BMD from baseline in the 150 mg once-monthly BONIVA and placebo treatment groups, respectively. BMD at other skeletal sites was also increased relative to baseline values.
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/5/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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