"Feb. 8, 2012 -- Some drugs used to strengthen bones may increase the risk of an unusual type of fracture if patients take them for many years, a new study shows.
Overall, most people with osteoporosis, a loss of bone density over time"...
Hypocalcemia and Mineral Metabolism
Adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is important in all patients. It is recommended that patients receive supplemental calcium and vitamin D if dietary intake is inadequate.
Cases of anaphylaxis, including fatal events, have been reported in patients treated with BONIVA Injection.
Appropriate medical support and monitoring measures should be readily available when BONIVA Injection is administered. If anaphylactic or other severe hypersensitivity/allergic reactions occur, immediately discontinue the injection and initiate appropriate treatment.
Treatment with intravenous bisphosphonates has been associated with renal toxicity manifested as deterioration in renal function and acute renal failure. Although no cases of acute renal failure were observed in controlled clinical trials in which intravenous BONIVA was administered as a 15- to 30-second bolus, acute renal failure has been reported postmarketing. Do not administer BONIVA Injection to patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min).
Obtain serum creatinine prior to each BONIVA Injection. After BONIVA Injection, assess renal function, as clinically appropriate, in patients with concomitant diseases or taking medications that have the potential for adverse effects on the kidney. BONIVA Injection should be withheld in patients with renal deterioration.
Tissue Damage Related to Inappropriate Drug Administration
BONIVA Injection must only be administered intravenously. Care must be taken not to administer BONIVA Injection intra-arterially or paravenously as this could lead to tissue damage.
Do not administer BONIVA Injection by any other route of administration. The safety and efficacy of BONIVA Injection following non-intravenous routes of administration have not been established.
Osteonecrosis of the Jaw
Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has been reported in patients treated with bisphosphonates, including BONIVA Injection. Most cases have been in cancer patients treated with intravenous bisphosphonates undergoing dental procedures. Some cases have occurred in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis treated with either oral or intravenous bisphosphonates. A routine oral examination should be performed by the prescriber prior to initiation of bisphosphonate treatment. Consider a dental examination with appropriate preventive dentistry prior to treatment with bisphosphonates in patients with a history of concomitant risk factors (e.g., cancer, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, corticosteroids, poor oral hygiene, pre-existing dental disease or infection, anemia, coagulopathy).
While on treatment, patients with concomitant risk factors should avoid invasive dental procedures if possible. For patients who develop ONJ while on bisphosphonate therapy, dental surgery may exacerbate the condition. For patients requiring dental procedures, there are no data available to suggest whether discontinuation of bisphosphonate treatment reduces the risk of ONJ. The clinical judgment of the treating physician should guide the management plan of each patient based on individual benefit/risk assessment [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Severe and occasionally incapacitating bone, joint, and/or muscle pain has been reported in patients taking BONIVA and other bisphosphonates [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. The time to onset of symptoms varied from one day to several months after starting the drug. Most patients had relief of symptoms after stopping the bisphosphonate. A subset of patients had recurrence of symptoms when rechallenged with the same drug or another bisphosphonate. Discontinue BONIVA if severe symptoms develop.
Atypical Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Femoral Fractures
Atypical, low-energy, or low-trauma fractures of the femoral shaft have been reported in bisphosphonate-treated patients. These fractures can occur anywhere in the femoral shaft from just below the lesser trochanter to above the supracondylar flare and are transverse or short oblique in orientation without evidence of comminution. Causality has not been established as these fractures also occur in osteoporotic patients who have not been treated with bisphosphonates.
Atypical femur fractures most commonly occur with minimal or no trauma to the affected area. They may be bilateral and many patients report prodromal pain in the affected area, usually presenting as dull, aching thigh pain, weeks to months before a complete fracture occurs. A number of reports note that patients were also receiving treatment with glucocorticoids (e.g., prednisone) at the time of fracture.
Any patient with a history of bisphosphonate exposure who presents with thigh or groin pain should be suspected of having an atypical fracture and should be evaluated to rule out an incomplete femur fracture. Patients presenting with an atypical fracture should also be assessed for symptoms and signs of fracture in the contralateral limb. Interruption of bisphosphonate therapy should be considered, pending a risk/benefit assessment, on an individual basis.
Patient Counseling Information
“See FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide)”
Inform patients that BONIVA Injection must be administered intravenously by a health care professional.
Patients should be instructed to read the Medication Guide carefully before BONIVA is administered and to reread it each time the prescription is renewed because it contains important information the patient should know about BONIVA.
Inform patients that BONIVA Injection is administered once every 3 months. If the dose is missed, the injection should be administered as soon as it can be rescheduled. Thereafter, injections should be scheduled every 3 months from the date of the last injection. Do not administer BONIVA Injection more frequently than once every 3 months.
Inform patients that they should take supplemental calcium and vitamin D if their dietary intake is inadequate [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients BONIVA injection should not be administered to patients with creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min. A serum creatinine should be measured prior to each dose [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that the most common side effects of BONIVA include arthralgia, back pain, hypertension, and abdominal pain. Flu-like symptoms (acute phase reaction) may occur within 3 days following infusion, and usually subside within 24-48 hours without specific therapy.
Inform patients that there have been reports of persistent pain and/or a non-healing sore of the mouth or jaw, primarily in patients treated with bisphosphonates for other illnesses. If they experience these symptoms, they should inform their physician or dentist.
Inform patients that severe bone, joint, and/or muscle pain have been reported in patients taking bisphosphonates, including BONIVA. Patients should report severe symptoms if they develop.
Inform patients that atypical femur fractures in patients on bisphosphonate therapy have been reported. Patients should report new thigh or groin pain and undergo evaluation to rule out a femoral fracture.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
In a 104-week carcinogenicity study, doses of 3, 7, or 15 mg/kg/day were administered by oral gavage to Wistar rats (systemic exposures in males and females up to 3 and 1 times, respectively, human exposure). There were no significant drug-related tumor findings in male or female rats. In a 78-week carcinogenicity study, doses of 5, 20, or 40 mg/kg/day were administered by oral gavage to NMRI mice (exposures in males and females up to 96 and 14 times, respectively, human exposure). There were no significant drug-related tumor findings in male or female mice. In a 90-week carcinogenicity study, doses of 5, 20, or 80 mg/kg/day were administered in the drinking water to NMRI mice. A dose-related increased incidence of adrenal subcapsular adenoma/carcinoma was observed in female mice, which was statistically significant at 80 mg/kg/day (32 to 51 times human exposure). The relevance of these findings to humans is unknown.
Exposure multiples comparing human and rodent doses were calculated using human exposure at the recommended intravenous dose of 3 mg every 3 months, based on cumulative AUC comparison.
There was no evidence for a mutagenic or clastogenic potential of ibandronate in the following assays: in vitro bacterial mutagenesis assay in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli (Ames test), mammalian cell mutagenesis assay in Chinese hamster V79 cells, and chromosomal aberration test in human peripheral lymphocytes, each with and without metabolic activation. Ibandronate was not genotoxic in the in vivo mouse micronucleus tests for chromosomal damage.
Impairment of Fertility
In female rats treated from 14 days prior to mating through gestation, decreases in fertility, corpora lutea and implantation sites, and increased preimplantation loss were observed at an intravenous dose of 1.2 mg/kg/day (117 times human exposure). In male rats treated for 28 days prior to mating, a decrease in sperm production and altered sperm morphology were observed at intravenous doses greater than or equal to 0.3 mg/kg/day (greater than or equal to 40 times human exposure).
Exposure multiples comparing human and rat doses were calculated using human exposure at the recommended intravenous dose of 3 mg every 3 months, based on cumulative AUC comparison.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. BONIVA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Bisphosphonates are incorporated into the bone matrix, from where they are gradually released over periods of weeks to years. The extent of bisphosphonate incorporation into adult bone, and hence, the amount available for release back into the systemic circulation, is directly related to the total dose and duration of bisphosphonate use. Although there are no data on fetal risk in humans, bisphosphonates do cause fetal harm in animals, and animal data suggest that uptake of bisphosphonates into fetal bone is greater than into maternal bone. Therefore, there is a theoretical risk of fetal harm (e.g., skeletal and other abnormalities) if a woman becomes pregnant after completing a course of bisphosphonate therapy. The impact of variables such as time between cessation of bisphosphonate therapy to conception, the particular bisphosphonate used, and the route of administration (intravenous versus oral) on this risk has not been established.
In pregnant rats given intravenous doses greater than or equal to 2 times human exposure from Day 17 postcoitum until Day 20 post-partum, ibandronate treatment resulted in dystocia, maternal mortality, and early postnatal pup loss in all dose groups. Reduced body weight at birth was observed at greater than or equal to 4 times the human exposure. Pups exhibited abnormal odontogeny that decreased food consumption and body weight gain at greater than or equal to 18 times human exposure. Periparturient mortality has also been observed with other bisphosphonates and appears to be a class effect related to inhibition of skeletal calcium mobilization resulting in hypocalcemia and dystocia.
Exposure of pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis resulted in an increased fetal incidence of RPU (renal pelvis ureter) syndrome at an intravenous dose greater than or equal to 47 times human exposure. In this spontaneous delivery study, dystocia was counteracted by perinatal calcium supplementation. In rat studies with intravenous dosing during gestation, fetal weight and pup growth were reduced at doses greater than or equal to 5 times human exposure.
In pregnant rabbits given intravenous doses during the period of organogenesis, maternal mortality, reduced maternal body weight gain, decreased litter size due to increased resorption rate, and decreased fetal weight were observed at 19 times the recommended human intravenous dose.
Exposure multiples for the rat studies were calculated using human exposure at the recommended intravenous dose of 3 mg every 3 months and were based on cumulative area under the time-concentration (AUC) comparison. Exposure multiples for the rabbit study were calculated for the recommended human intravenous dose of 3 mg every 3 months and were based on cumulative dose/[body surface area] comparison. Doses in pregnant animals were 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.3, 0.5 or 1 mg/kg/day in rats, and 0.03, 0.07, or 0.2 mg/kg/day in rabbits.
It is not known whether BONIVA is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when BONIVA Injection is administered to a nursing woman. In lactating rats treated with intravenous doses of 0.08 mg/kg, ibandronate was present in breast milk at concentrations of 8.1 to 0.4 ng/mL from 2 to 24 hours after dose administration. Concentrations in milk averaged 1.5 times plasma concentrations.
Safety and effectiveness of BONIVA in pediatric patients have not been established.
Of the patients receiving BONIVA Injection 3 mg every 3 months for 1 year, 51% were over 65 years of age. No overall differences in effectiveness or safety were observed between these patients and younger patients, but greater sensitivity in some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
BONIVA Injection should not be administered to patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/6/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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