"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Imbruvica (ibrutinib) to treat patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a rare and aggressive type of blood cancer.
MCL is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and represents about 6 "...
Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain occur with BOSULIF treatment. Monitor and manage patients using standards of care, including antidiarrheals, antiemetics, and fluid replacement. In the single-arm Phase ½ clinical trial, the median time to onset for diarrhea (all grades) was 2 days and the median duration per event was 1 day. Among the patients who experienced diarrhea, the median number of episodes of diarrhea per patient during treatment with BOSULIF was 3 (range 1-221). To manage gastrointestinal toxicity, withhold, dose reduce, or discontinue BOSULIF as necessary [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Thrombocytopenia, anemia and neutropenia occur with BOSULIF treatment. Perform complete blood counts weekly for the first month of therapy and then monthly thereafter, or as clinically indicated. To manage myelosuppression, withhold, dose reduce, or discontinue BOSULIF as necessary [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
One case consistent with drug induced liver injury (defined as concurrent elevations in ALT or AST greater than or equal to 3xULN with total bilirubin greater than 2xULN and alkaline phosphatase less than 2xULN) occurred in a trial of BOSULIF in combination with letrozole. The patient recovered fully following discontinuation of BOSULIF. This case represented 1 out of 1209 patients in BOSULIF clinical trials.
In the 546 patients from the safety population, the incidence of ALT elevation was 17% and AST elevation was 14%. Twenty percent of the patients experienced an increase in either ALT or AST. Most cases of transaminase elevations occurred early in treatment; of patients who experienced transaminase elevations of any grade, more than 80% experienced their first event within the first 3 months. The median time to onset of increased ALT and AST was 30 and 33 days, respectively, and the median duration for each was 21 days.
Perform hepatic enzyme tests monthly for the first three months of BOSULIF treatment and as clinically indicated. In patients with transaminase elevations, monitor liver enzymes more frequently. Withhold, dose reduce, or discontinue BOSULIF as necessary [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
In the single-arm Phase ½ clinical trial in 546 patients with CML treated with prior therapy, severe fluid retention was reported in 14 patients (3%). Specifically, 9 patients had a Grade 3 or 4 pleural effusion, 3 patients experienced both Grade 3 or Grade 4 pleural and pericardial effusions, 1 patient experienced Grade 3 peripheral and pulmonary edema, and 1 patient had a Grade 3 edema.
An on-treatment decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) has occurred in patients treated with BOSULIF. Table 2 identifies the shift from baseline to lowest observed estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during BOSULIF therapy for patients in the global Ph+ Leukemia studies. The median duration of therapy with BOSULIF was approximately 17 months (range, 0.03 to 95) for patients in these studies.
Table 2: Shift from Baseline to Lowest Observed eGFR
Group During Treatment Safety Population in Clinical Studies (n=818)*
|Renal Function Status||n||Normal n (%)||Mild n (%)||Mild to Moderate n (%)||Moderate to Severe n (%)||Severe n (%)||Kidney Failure n (%)|
|Normal||274||53 (19)||174 (64)||30 (11)||14 (5)||1 ( < 1)||1 ( < 1)|
|Mild||438||10 (2)||170 (39)||177 (40)||63 (14)||14 (3)||2 (1)|
|Mild to Moderate||79||0||4 (5)||28 (35)||37 (47)||10 (13)||0|
|Moderate to Severe||24||0||1 (4)||1 (4)||6 (25)||15 (63)||1 (4)|
|Total||816||63 (8)||349 (43)||236 (29)||120 (15)||40 (5)||5 (1)|
|Notes: Grading is based on Modification in Diet in Renal
Disease method (MDRD). KDIGO Classification by eGFR: Normal: greater than or
equal to 90, Mild: 60 to less than 90, Mild to Moderate: 45 to less than 60,
Moderate to Severe: 30 to less than 45, Severe: 15 to less than 30, Kidney
Failure: less than 15 ml/min/1.73 m².
*Among the 818 patients, eGFR was missing in 5 patients at baseline or on-therapy. There were no patients with kidney failure at baseline.
Monitor renal function at baseline and during therapy with BOSULIF, with particular attention to those patients who have preexisting renal impairment or risk factors for renal dysfunction. Consider dose adjustment in patients with baseline and treatment emergent renal impairment [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
There are no adequate and well controlled studies of BOSULIF in pregnant women. BOSULIF can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Bosutinib caused embryofetal toxicities in rabbits at maternal exposures that were greater than the clinical exposure at the recommended bosutinib dose of 500 mg/day. Females of reproductive potential should be advised to avoid pregnancy while being treated with BOSULIF. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Use in Specific Populations].
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
Dosing And Administration
Instruct patients to take BOSULIF exactly as prescribed, not to change their dose or to stop taking BOSULIF unless they are told to do so by their doctor. If patients miss a dose beyond 12 hours, they should be advised to take the next scheduled dose at its regular time. A double dose should not be taken to make up for any missed dose. Advise patients to take BOSULIF with food. Patients should be advised: “.Do not crush or cut tablet. Do not touch or handle crushed or broken tablets.”
Advise patients that they may experience diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or blood in their stools with BOSULIF and to seek medical attention promptly for these symptoms.
Low Blood Cell Counts
Advise patients of the possibility of developing low blood cell counts and to immediately report fever, any suggestion of infection, or signs or symptoms suggestive of bleeding or easy bruising.
Advise patients of the possibility of developing liver function abnormalities and to immediately report jaundice.
Advise patients of the possibility of developing fluid retention (swelling, weight gain, or shortness of breath) and to seek medical attention promptly if these symptoms arise.
Other Adverse Reactions
Advise patients that they may experience other adverse reactions such as respiratory tract infections, rash, fatigue, loss of appetite, headache, dizziness, back pain, arthralgia, or pruritus with BOSULIF and to seek medical attention if symptoms are significant. There is a possibility of anaphylactic shock.
Pregnancy And Breast-feeding
Advise patients that BOSULIF can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise women of the potential hazard to the fetus and to avoid becoming pregnant. If BOSULIF is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking BOSULIF, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Because a potential risk to the nursing infant cannot be excluded, women that are taking BOSULIF should not breast-feed or provide breast milk to infants.
Counsel females of reproductive potential to use effective contraceptive measures to prevent pregnancy during and for at least 30 days after completing treatment with BOSULIF. Instruct patients to contact their physicians immediately if they become pregnant during treatment. Advise patients not to take BOSULIF treatment while pregnant or breastfeeding. If a patient wishes to restart breastfeeding after treatment, advise her to discuss the appropriate timing with her physician.
Advise patients that BOSULIF and certain other medicines, including over the counter medications or herbal supplements (such as St. John's wort) can interact with each other and may alter the effects of BOSULIF [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
A 2-year carcinogenicity study was conducted orally in rats at bosutinib doses up to 25 mg/kg/day in males and 15 mg/kg/day in females. The exposures achieved at the high dose were approximately 1.5-to 3-fold the human exposure (based on AUC) at the bosutinib dose of 500 mg/day. The study was negative for carcinogenic findings.
Bosutinib was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a battery of tests, including the bacteria reverse mutation assay (Ames Test), the in vitro assay using human peripheral blood lymphocytes and the micronucleus test in orally treated male mice.
In a rat fertility study, drug-treated males were mated with untreated females, or untreated males were mated with drug-treated females. Females were administered the drug from pre-mating through early embryonic development. The dose of 70 mg/kg/day of bosutinib resulted in reduced fertility in males as demonstrated by 16% reduction in the number of pregnancies. There were no lesions in the male reproductive organs at this dose. This dose of 70 mg/kg/day resulted in exposure (AUC) in male rats approximately equal to that in humans at the 500 mg/day dose of bosutinib. Fertility (number of pregnancies) was not affected when female rats were treated with bosutinib. However, there were increased embryonic resorptions at greater than or equal to 10 mg/kg/day of bosutinib (40% of the human exposure), and decreased implantations and reduced number of viable embryos at 30 mg/kg/day of bosutinib (1.4 times the human exposure).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category D [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Based on its mechanism of action and findings in animals, BOSULIF can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Studies in animals showed reproductive toxicities. If BOSULIF is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking BOSULIF, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
Fetal exposure to bosutinib-derived radioactivity during pregnancy was demonstrated in a placental-transfer study in pregnant rats. Bosutinib was administered orally to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis at doses of 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg/day. This study did not expose pregnant rats to enough bosutinib to fully evaluate adverse outcomes.
In a study conducted in rabbits, bosutinib was administered orally to pregnant animals during the period of organogenesis at doses of 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg/day. At the maternally-toxic dose of 30 mg/kg/day of bosutinib, there were fetal anomalies (fused sternebrae, and two fetuses had various visceral observations), and an approximate 6% decrease in fetal body weight. The dose of 30 mg/kg/day resulted in exposures (AUC) approximately 4 times those in humans at the 500 mg/day dose of bosutinib.
It is not known whether bosutinib is excreted in human milk. Bosutinib and/or its metabolites were excreted in the milk of lactating rats. Radioactivity was present in the plasma of suckling offspring 24 to 48 hours after lactating rats received a single oral dose of radioactive bosutinib. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from BOSULIF, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
The safety and efficacy of BOSULIF in patients less than 18 years of age have not been established.
In the Phase ½ clinical trial of BOSULIF in patients with Ph+ CML, 20% were age 65 and over, 4% were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Treat with a dose of 200 mg daily in patients with any baseline hepatic impairment. In a dedicated hepatic impairment trial, the exposure to bosutinib increased (C max increased 1.5-to 2.3-fold and the AUC increased 1.9-to 2.4-fold) in patients with hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh classes A, B, and C; N=18) compared to matched healthy volunteers (N=9) [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Reduce the BOSULIF starting dose in patients with severe (CLcr less than 30 mL/min) or moderate (CLcr 30 to 50 mL/min) renal impairment at baseline. For patients who have declining renal function while on BOSULIF who cannot tolerate a 500 mg dose, follow dose adjustment recommendations for toxicity. In a dedicated renal impairment trial, compared to subjects with normal renal function, the exposure (AUC) of bosutinib increased by 60% and 35% in subjects with CLcr less than 30 mL/min and CLcr 30 to 50 mL/min, respectively, compared to subjects with normal renal function [see DOSING AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
BOSULIF has not been studied in patients undergoing hemodialysis.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/29/2016
Additional Bosulif Information
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