Multiple Sclerosis: Botox Treatment
Danette C. Taylor, DO, MS, FACN
Dr. Taylor has a passion for treating patients as individuals. In practice since 1994, she has a wide range of experience in treating patients with many types of movement disorders and dementias. In addition to patient care, she is actively involved in the training of residents and medical students, and has been both primary and secondary investigator in numerous research studies through the years. She is a Clinical Assistant Professor at Michigan State University's College of Osteopathic Medicine (Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology). She graduated with a BS degree from Alma College, and an MS (biomechanics) from Michigan State University. She received her medical degree from Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine. Her internship and residency were completed at Botsford General Hospital. Additionally, she completed a fellowship in movement disorders with Dr. Peter LeWitt. She has been named a fellow of the American College of Neuropsychiatrists. She is board-certified in neurology by the American Osteopathic Board of Neurology and Psychiatry. She has authored several articles and lectured extensively; she continues to write questions for two national medical boards. Dr. Taylor is a member of the Medical and Scientific Advisory Council (MSAC) of the Alzheimer's Association of Michigan, and is a reviewer for the journal Clinical Neuropharmacology.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
- What is Botox?
- What is multiple sclerosis?
- What is spasticity?
- How is Botox used to treat multiple sclerosis?
- Who is a good candidate for Botox injections?
- How many Botox injections are needed? How do Botox injections work?
- What are the potential risks and side effects of Botox injections?
- How much do Botox injections cost? Does insurance cover Botox injections?
- How can I expect to feel after getting Botox injections?
What is Botox?
Botox is one specific brand of purified botulinum toxin, which is the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Medical uses of botulinum toxin began in 1980, when targeted weakening of eye muscles was identified as a potential treatment of strabismus, a condition in which the eyes don't line up correctly.
Although many different types of botulinum toxin have been identified, only types A and B are approved for the use in treatment of muscle problems. In addition to Botox, other approved forms of botulinum toxin A include Dysport and Xeomin. Myobloc is the approved form of botulinum toxin B.
When used for clinical purposes, the toxin is used in small amounts, leading to weakness in the muscles into which it is injected. This weakness can be beneficial in various conditions characterized by too much muscle activity, such as dystonia or spasticity. This is in distinct contrast to the disease botulism, which occurs when the non-purified bacterium is ingested and the toxin is dispersed through the body causing widespread weakness.
What is multiple sclerosis?
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease that causes demyelination of the brain and spinal cord. When this occurs, axons (the parts of the nerve cells that conduct impulses to other cells) don't work well. As more areas are affected by this loss of myelin, patients develop symptoms. The specific symptom that someone might experience is related to the area of injury in the brain or spinal cord. Patients might describe numbness, tingling, or weakness. The weakness may be mild or severe enough to cause paralysis of one side of the body. In some cases, patients may develop incontinence or even an inability to empty their bladder. As multiple sclerosis progresses, some patients are left with muscle spasticity or an involuntary painful contraction of certain muscles.
Next: What is spasticity?
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