Brain Hemorrhage (cont.)
Danette C. Taylor, DO, MS, FACN
Dr. Taylor has a passion for treating patients as individuals. In practice since 1994, she has a wide range of experience in treating patients with many types of movement disorders and dementias. In addition to patient care, she is actively involved in the training of residents and medical students, and has been both primary and secondary investigator in numerous research studies through the years. She is a Clinical Assistant Professor at Michigan State University's College of Osteopathic Medicine (Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology). She graduated with a BS degree from Alma College, and an MS (biomechanics) from Michigan State University. She received her medical degree from Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine. Her internship and residency were completed at Botsford General Hospital. Additionally, she completed a fellowship in movement disorders with Dr. Peter LeWitt. She has been named a fellow of the American College of Neuropsychiatrists. She is board-certified in neurology by the American Osteopathic Board of Neurology and Psychiatry. She has authored several articles and lectured extensively; she continues to write questions for two national medical boards. Dr. Taylor is a member of the Medical and Scientific Advisory Council (MSAC) of the Alzheimer's Association of Michigan, and is a reviewer for the journal Clinical Neuropharmacology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- What is a brain hemorrhage?
- What causes a brain hemorrhage?
- What are the symptoms of a brain hemorrhage?
- How is a brain hemorrhage diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for a brain hemorrhage?
- What is the prognosis after a brain hemorrhage? Is recovery possible?
- Special situations
- Find a local Doctor in your town
How is a brain hemorrhage diagnosed?
If any kind of stroke is suspected, immediate evaluation is needed. Examination may reveal evidence of brain injury with weakness, slurred speech, and/or loss of sensations. Generally, a radiology examination is necessary, such as a computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The CT or MRI can highlight various features and location of brain bleeding. If bleeding inside of or around the brain is noted, further testing may be ordered to try to determine the cause of the bleeding. This additional testing can help to determine if abnormal blood vessels are present as well as the next step in either diagnosis or treatment. In certain situations, a spinal tap (lumbar puncture) may be required to confirm evidence of bleeding or rule out other brain problems.
What is the treatment for a brain hemorrhage?
Patients with bleeding inside of the brain must be monitored very closely. Early treatment includes stabilizing blood pressure and breathing. A breathing assist machine (ventilator) can be required to ensure that enough oxygen is supplied to the brain and other organs. Intravenous access is needed so that fluids and medications can be given to the patient, especially if the person is unconscious. Sometimes specialized monitoring of heart rhythms, blood oxygen levels, or pressure inside of the skull is needed.
After a person has been stabilized, then a determination of how to address the bleeding is made. This stabilization and decision-making process takes place very rapidly. The decision to perform surgery is based on the size and location of the hemorrhage. Not everyone with an intracranial hemorrhage needs to have surgery.
Various medications may be used to help decrease swelling around the area of the hemorrhage, to keep blood pressure at an optimal level, and to prevent seizure. If a patient is awake, pain medication may be needed.
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