Breast Biopsy (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Breast biopsy facts
- What is a breast biopsy?
- What is the purpose of a breast biopsy?
- What specialties of physicians and other health-care professionals perform breast biopsies?
- Who should have a breast biopsy?
- In what setting is the breast biopsy done?
- What may a benign result indicate?
- How is a suspicious breast growth discovered?
- What breast symptoms should I be concerned about?
- What should the patient tell the doctor about the growth?
- How does a physician confirm the presence of a breast growth?
- Is anesthesia needed for a breast biopsy?
- What about pain and complications from a breast biopsy?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of nonsurgical procedures versus surgical breast biopsies?
- What are the different types of breast biopsy procedures and what do they involve?
- How is a fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) done?
- How is a core needle biopsy (CNB) done?
- How is a vacuum-assisted breast biopsy done?
- How is an excision biopsy of the breast done?
- What is the time frame for receiving the results of a breast biopsy?
- Find a local Surgeon in your town
How is a vacuum-assisted breast biopsy done?
Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy is procedure that uses a special instrument and imaging guidance to remove breast tissue samples through a single small skin incision. This technique allows the surgeon to remove more tissue through a single incision than is possible with a traditional core biopsy and is a much less invasive procedure than an open surgical biopsy.
The vacuum-assisted biopsy involves the placement of a biopsy probe using radiology imaging studies for guidance. Stereotactic mammography, ultrasound, and MRI have all been successfully used to identify the abnormal areas to be sampled by vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. Once the biopsy probe has been positioned, a vacuum pulls the breast tissue through an opening in the probe into the sampling chamber of the device. Then a rotating cutting device in the instrument removes the tissue sample, which is carried through the biopsy probe to a tissue collection receptacle.
The surgeon or radiologist then turns a control knob on the biopsy probe that moves the sampling chamber to a new position. This procedure is repeated until all desired areas have been sampled. In this way, samples can be taken all around a suspicious area through a single insertion of the biopsy probe. With a traditional core biopsy, sampling of multiple areas would involve repeated insertions of the biopsy instrument.
The vacuum-assisted biopsy procedure is performed under local anesthesia and leaves a small incision that does not require stitches for closure. It takes less than an hour to perform, and patients can usually return to normal activities soon after the procedure.
How is an excision biopsy of the breast done?
An excision (surgical) biopsy can also be done in different ways:
- Surgical biopsy of palpable growths (lumpectomy): This procedure removes part or all of a breast growth, or lump. The doctor makes an incision 1 or 2 inches (about 2.5 to 5 cm) across and removes the sample. If the lump is small and measures 1 inch (2.5 cm) or less across, the doctor usually removes the entire lump for testing. If the lump is large, the doctor usually removes only a portion of it for testing. If cancer is found, the rest of the lump can be removed at the time of the biopsy or at a later time.
The doctor closes the opening with sutures or clips that remain in place for about a week. Patients who receive general anesthesia rather than a local will require about an hour to recover from drowsiness after the surgery.
- Surgical biopsy for non-palpable lumps: This procedure is similar to lumpectomy except that the growth is first located by mammography or other imaging studies and then "marked." The doctor inserts a needle that conveys a wire with a hook on the end into the breast, all the while using the image as a guide. After anchoring the hooked wire to the lump, the doctor withdraws the needle and performs the surgery. Another option is to inject a dye to mark the spot rather than using a hooked wire.
What is the time frame for receiving the results of a breast biopsy?
For small biopsies and fine-needle aspirations, the results may be available the next day. The results of most breast biopsies will be available within a few days. Sometimes special testing must be performed, and the results may be delayed and take longer. This does not necessarily mean that a cancer is present. For example, sometimes the tissue sections must be recut to reveal deeper layers of the tissue to allow for optimal evaluation by the pathologist. In other cases, special tissue stains may be necessary to help the pathologist assess the tissue sample under the microscope. The radiologist or surgeon performing the procedure will be able to give you a better idea of the approximate time frame and how the result will be communicated to you.
REFERENCE: NIH. Breast biopsy - stereotactic.
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