Breast Cancer (Facts, Stages) (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
In this Article
- Breast cancer facts
- What is breast cancer?
- What are the risk factors for breast cancer?
- What causes breast cancer?
- What are the different types of breast cancer?
- What are the signs and symptoms of breast cancer?
- How is breast cancer diagnosed?
- Definitive diagnosis
- Specialized testing
- What are the stages of breast cancer?
- What is the treatment for breast cancer?
- Hormone therapy
- Targeted therapy
- Breast cancer treatment by stage
- What are the survival rates and prognosis for breast cancer?
- What research is being performed on breast cancer?
- Can breast cancer be prevented?
- Breast Cancer FAQs
- Find a local Oncologist in your town
What causes breast cancer?
Breast cancer, like all cancers, is caused when changes within a cell cause it to acquire the ability to grow in an uncontrolled way. Normal mechanisms fail to check the growth of cells, and a population of malignant cells arises that has the capability to invade normal tissues and spread within the body. Cancers likely arise due to a series of mutations with cellular genetic material, and there is no one risk factor that is exclusively responsible for causing breast cancer. As with other cancers, a combination of genetic and environmental influences are likely involved to cause breast cancers.
What are the different types of breast cancer?
Breast cancer can be described as invasive or in situ. Invasive breast cancers are tumors that have spread beyond the ducts or lobules of the breast and have begun to invade normal tissues.
In situ breast cancers -- ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) -- are considered to be noninvasive forms of breast cancer. In these conditions, abnormalities in the cells have caused proliferation of atypical cells, but these cells have not spread beyond the ducts or lobules of the breast.
DCIS is currently an area of controversy in the breast cancer field. The risk of DCIS is that a few of the abnormal cells may ultimately become invasive cancer cells. However, many cases of DCIS will never become invasive, and after excision of the abnormal areas, most cases of DCIS do not recur. However, there remains the possibility that simple excision of DCIS is not sufficient to prevent recurrence in some women, so additional treatment is often given. Currently studies are underway in an attempt to identify which cases of DCIS are most likely to become invasive and which cases will follow a more indolent course.
Among invasive breast cancers, about 70% arise in cells of the ducts and are known as invasive ductal carcinomas. Another 10% arise in the milk glands or lobules and are termed invasive lobular carcinoma. The remaining breast cancers are made up of less common types of cancer, including Paget's disease of the nipple, a type of cancer that affects cells beneath the nipple. Combinations of different cancer types are also possible.
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