Breast Cancer (Facts, Stages) (cont.)
Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP
Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Breast cancer facts
- What is breast cancer?
- What are the different types of breast cancer?
- What are the statistics on male breast cancer?
- What causes breast cancer?
- What are breast cancer risk factors?
- What are breast cancer symptoms and signs?
- How do physicians diagnose breast cancer?
- How is breast cancer staging determined?
- What is the prognosis of breast cancer?
- What is the treatment for breast cancer?
- Is it possible to prevent breast cancer?
- What research is being done on breast cancer? Is it worthwhile to participate in a clinical trial?
- I may have breast cancer, what questions should I ask my doctor?
- Is the doctor sure I have breast cancer?
- What type of breast cancer do I have?
- What difference does a precise diagnosis make?
- What has been done to exclude cancer in other areas of the same breast or in my other breast?
- What type of medical team do I need for the most accurate diagnosis?
- Is my family history relevant to my breast cancer diagnosis?
- What other studies should be done on my breast tissue biopsy?
- How urgent is it that I make decisions and begin treatment?
- Should I stop taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT)?
- Even though my breast tumor does not have hormone receptors, should I take tamoxifen to reduce the risk of a new tumor?
- I have a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a type of localized cancer. Why have I been advised to have a mastectomy when other women with invasive cancer have lumpectomies?
- Should I start chemotherapy before surgery?
- If I am advised to have a mastectomy, what are the risks and benefits of immediate breast reconstruction?
- Should my lymph nodes be removed?
- What is a sentinel lymph node biopsy, and what are its benefits and risks?
- Are there any other questions I should ask my doctor?
- Breast Cancer FAQs
- Find a local Oncologist in your town
What are breast cancer symptoms and signs?
The most common sign of breast cancer is a new lump or mass in the breast. In addition, the following are possible signs of breast cancer:
- Thickening or lump in the breast that feels different from the surrounding area
- Inverting of the nipple (as a change from previous appearance)
- Nipple discharge or redness (especially any bloody discharge)
- Breast or nipple pain
- Swelling of part of the breast or dimpling
- Changes in the skin of the breast
One should discuss these or any other concerning findings with a health-care professional.
How do physicians diagnose breast cancer?
Although breast cancer can be diagnosed by the above signs and symptoms, the use of screening mammography has made it possible to detect many of the cancers early before they cause any symptoms.
The American Cancer Society has the following recommendations for breast cancer screenings:
Women age 40 and older should have a screening mammogram every year and should continue to do so as long as they are in good health.
Mammograms are a very good screening tool for breast cancer. As in any test, mammograms have limitations and will miss some cancers. An individual's family history and mammogram and breast exam results should be discussed with a health-care provider.
Women in their 20s and 30s should have a clinical breast exam (CBE) as part of regular health exams by a health-care professional about every three years for women in their 20s and 30s and every year for women 40 years of age and over.
Clinical breast exams are an important tool to detect changes in the breast and also trigger a discussion with a health-care provider about early cancer detection and risk factors.
Breast self-exam (BSE) is an option for women starting in their 20s. Women should report any breast changes to their health-care professional.
If a woman wishes to do BSE, the technique should be reviewed with her health-care provider. The goal is to feel comfortable with the way the woman's breast feels and looks and therefore detect changes.
Women at high risk (greater than 20% lifetime risk) should get an MRI and a mammogram every year. Women at moderate risk (15%-20%) should talk to their doctor about the benefits and limitations of adding MRI screening to their yearly mammogram.
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