Breast Cancer Prevention
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP
Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
- Introduction to breast cancer prevention
- What are the biological causes of breast cancer?
- What are the risk factors for developing breast cancer?
- What is the importance of early breast cancer detection?
- What are the advantages and limitations of mammography?
- How frequently should women undergo mammography and breast examinations?
- What is the risk of radiation with repeated mammography screening over the years?
- How helpful are BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic tests in identifying women at risk?
- What is the link between estrogen and breast cancer?
- What are breast cancer prevention treatments?
- Are there other breast cancer prevention measures?
Introduction to breast cancer prevention
For many women, breast cancer elicits not only the fears related to all cancer diagnoses such as treatment side effects, surgery, and death but also fears related to loss of body image and effect on sexuality. As is the case for most cancers, the exact cause of breast cancer is not clearly known. Furthermore, there is currently no cure for advanced disease, and there is no definitive way of preventing it.
Breast cancer also affects men. Male breast cancer accounts for about 1% of all breast cancers. Around 230,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed each year in women in the U.S.
Our knowledge of how breast cancer develops is expanding rapidly. As a result, new medications are being developed to reduce the risk of breast cancer among those at high risk of contracting this disease. For the majority of women, lifestyle changes, a healthy diet, exercise, and weight reduction can also help reduce the chance of developing breast cancer. To date, the most important strategy in improving survival is still breast cancer screening and early detection. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States. The leading cause is lung cancer. One in every eight women in the United States develops breast cancer. The risk is even higher for women with previous breast cancer, those who have first-degree relatives with breast cancer, those with multiple family members with cancer, and those who have inherited "cancer genes."
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