"Male twin Vietnam veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were more than twice as likely as those without PTSD to develop heart disease during a 13-year period, according to a study supported by the National Institutes of Health."...
General Risk Of Bleeding
Drugs that inhibit platelet function including BRILINTA increase the risk of bleeding [see ADVERSE REACTIONS ].
Concomitant Aspirin Maintenance Dose
In PLATO the use of BRILINTA with maintenance doses of aspirin above 100 mg decreased the effectiveness of BRILINTA. Therefore, after the initial loading dose of aspirin, use BRILINTA with a maintenance dose of aspirin of 75100 mg [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Clinical Studies].
In clinical trials, about 14% of patients treated with BRILINTA developed dyspnea. Dyspnea was usually mild to moderate in intensity and often resolved during continued treatment, but led to study drug discontinuation in 0.9% of BRILINTA and 0.1% of clopidogrel patients in PLATO and 4.3% of BRILINTA 60 mg and 0.7% on aspirin alone patients in PEGASUS.
In a substudy of PLATO, 199 subjects underwent pulmonary function testing irrespective of whether they reported dyspnea. There was no indication of an adverse effect on pulmonary function assessed after one month or after at least 6 months of chronic treatment.
If a patient develops new, prolonged, or worsened dyspnea that is determined to be related to BRILINTA, no specific treatment is required; continue BRILINTA without interruption if possible. In the case of intolerable dyspnea requiring discontinuation of BRILINTA, consider prescribing another antiplatelet agent.
Discontinuation Of BRILINTA
Discontinuation of BRILINTA will increase the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. If BRILINTA must be temporarily discontinued (e.g., to treat bleeding or for significant surgery), restart it as soon as possible. When possible, interrupt therapy with BRILINTA for five days prior to surgery that has a major risk of bleeding. Resume BRILINTA as soon as hemostasis is achieved.
Severe Hepatic Impairment
Avoid use of BRILINTA in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Severe hepatic impairment is likely to increase serum concentration of ticagrelor. There are no studies of BRILINTA patients with severe hepatic impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide)
Advise patients daily doses of aspirin should not exceed 100 mg and to avoid taking any other medications that contain aspirin.
Advise patients that they:
- Will bleed and bruise more easily
- Will take longer than usual to stop bleeding
- Should report any unanticipated, prolonged or excessive bleeding, or blood in their stool or urine.
Advise patients to contact their doctor if they experience unexpected shortness of breath, especially if severe.
Advise patients to inform physicians and dentists that they are taking BRILINTA before any surgery or dental procedure.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Ticagrelor was not carcinogenic in the mouse at doses up to 250 mg/kg/day or in the male rat at doses up to 120 mg/kg/day (19 and 15 times the MRHD of 90 mg twice daily on the basis of AUC, respectively). Uterine carcinomas, uterine adenocarcinomas and hepatocellular adenomas were seen in female rats at doses of 180 mg/kg/day (29-fold the maximally recommended dose of 90 mg twice daily on the basis of AUC), whereas 60 mg/kg/day (8-fold the MRHD based on AUC) was not carcinogenic in female rats.
Ticagrelor did not demonstrate genotoxicity when tested in the Ames bacterial mutagenicity test, mouse lymphoma assay and the rat micronucleus test. The active O-demethylated metabolite did not demonstrate genotoxicity in the Ames assay and mouse lymphoma assay.
Impairment of Fertility
Ticagrelor had no effect on male fertility at doses up to 180 mg/kg/day or on female fertility at doses up to 200 mg/kg/day ( > 15-fold the MRHD on the basis of AUC). Doses of ≥ 10 mg/kg/day given to female rats caused an increased incidence of irregular duration estrus cycles (1.5-fold the MRHD based on AUC).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of BRILINTA use in pregnant women. In animal studies, ticagrelor caused structural abnormalities at maternal doses about 5 to 7 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) based on body surface area. BRILINTA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
In reproductive toxicology studies, pregnant rats received ticagrelor during organogenesis at doses from 20 to 300 mg/kg/day. 20 mg/kg/day is approximately the same as the MRHD of 90 mg twice daily for a 60 kg human on a mg/m² basis. Adverse outcomes in offspring occurred at doses of 300 mg/kg/day (16.5 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis) and included supernumerary liver lobe and ribs, incomplete ossification of sternebrae, displaced articulation of pelvis, and misshapen/misaligned sternebrae. At the mid-dose of 100 mg/kg/day, delayed development of liver and skeleton was seen. When pregnant rabbits received ticagrelor during organogenesis at doses from 21 to 63 mg/kg/day, fetuses exposed to the highest maternal dose of 63 mg/kg/day (6.8 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis) had delayed gall bladder development and incomplete ossification of the hyoid, pubis and sternebrae occurred.
In a prenatal/postnatal study, pregnant rats received ticagrelor at doses of 10 to 180 mg/kg/day during late gestation and lactation. Pup death and effects on pup growth were observed at 180 mg/kg/day (approximately 10 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). Relatively minor effects such as delays in pinna unfolding and eye opening occurred at doses of 10 and 60 mg/kg (approximately one-half and 3.2 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis).
It is not known whether ticagrelor or its active metabolites are excreted in human milk. Ticagrelor is excreted in rat milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from BRILINTA, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue BRILINTA.
The safety and effectiveness of BRILINTA in pediatric patients have not been established.
In PLATO and PEGASUS, about half of patients in each study were ≥ 65 years of age and about 15% were ≥ 75 years of age. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between elderly and younger patients.
Ticagrelor is metabolized by the liver and impaired hepatic function can increase risks for bleeding and other adverse events. Avoid use of BRILINTA in patients with severe hepatic impairment. There is limited experience with BRILINTA in patients with moderate hepatic impairment; consider the risks and benefits of treatment, noting the probable increase in exposure to ticagrelor. No dosage adjustment is needed in patients with mild hepatic impairment [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
No dosage adjustment is needed in patients with renal impairment. Patients receiving dialysis have not been studied [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/18/2015
Additional Brilinta Information
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