Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD
Dr. Roxanne Dryden-Edwards is an adult, child, and adolescent psychiatrist. She is a former Chair of the Committee on Developmental Disabilities for the American Psychiatric Association, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, and Medical Director of the National Center for Children and Families in Bethesda, Maryland.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Bullying facts
- What is bullying?
- How common is bullying?
- What are the different types of bullying?
- What makes a bully? Why do kids bully? Why do adults bully?
- What are causes and risk factors of bullying?
- What are symptoms and signs of children and adults who are bullied?
- What are the effects of bullying?
- What should victims of bullying and their parents do to stop bullying?
- What should parents do if they think their child is bullying others?
- What can people do if they see someone being bullied?
- What measures can be implemented to prevent bullying at school and in the workplace?
- Where can people find more information about bullying?
- Find a local Doctor in your town
How common is bullying?
Some statistics on bullying suggest that 28% of students from grades six through 12 have been victim of bullying, 30% of high school students acknowledge having bullied other students. Most victims of cyber bullying have also been victims of school bullying.
Studies show that teachers often underestimate how much bullying is occurring at their school since they only see about 4% of bullying incidents that occur. Further, victims of bullying only report it to school adults one-third of the time, usually when the bullying is being suffered repeatedly or has caused injury. Parents tend to be aware their child is being bullied only about half the time.
More than 40% of workers in the United States are thought to have been bullied in the workplace. More than 90% of working women are estimated to believe they have been undermined by another woman at some time in their careers. However, due to the stereotype that women should be more nurturing, a woman may perceive normal supervision from another woman undermining.
What are the different types of bullying?
There are thought to be four types of bullying. Physical bullying may involve hitting, kicking, pushing, or otherwise fighting others. Verbal bullying refers to the use of words to harm others with name-calling, insults, making bigoted comments, or harsh teasing. Relational bullying focuses on excluding someone from a peer group, usually through verbal threats, spreading rumors, and other forms of intimidation. Reactive bullying involves the bully responding to being a former victim by bullying others. Boys tend to engage in bullying more often than girls and are more likely to engage in physical or verbal bullying, while girls more often engage in relational bullying.
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