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Reviewed by Arefa Cassoobhoy, MD, MPH
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Albumin is responsible for 70-80% of the colloid osmotic pressure of normal plasma, thus making it useful in regulating the volume of circulating blood.4-6 Albumin is also a transport protein and binds naturally occurring, therapeutic and toxic materials in the circulation.5,6
BUMINATE 25%, Albumin (Human), 25% Solution is osmotically equivalent to approximately five times its volume of human plasma. When injected intravenously, 25% albumin will draw about 3.5 times its volume of additional fluid into the circulation within 15 minutes, except when the patient is markedly dehydrated. This extra fluid reduces hemoconcentration and blood viscosity. The degree and duration of volume expansion depends upon the initial blood volume. With patients treated for diminished blood volume, the effect of infused albumin may persist for many hours; however, in patients with normal volume, the duration will be shorter.7,8
Total body albumin is estimated to be 350 g for a 70 kg man and is distributed throughout the extracellular compartments; more than 60% is located in the extravascular fluid compartment. The half-life of albumin is 15 to 20 days with a turnover of approximately 15 g per day.5
The minimum plasma albumin level necessary to prevent or reverse peripheral edema is unknown. Some investigators recommend that plasma albumin levels be maintained at approximately 2.5 g/dL. This concentration provides a plasma oncotic value of 20 mm Hg.4
BUMINATE 25%, Albumin (Human), 25% Solution is manufactured from human plasma by the modified Cohn-Oncley cold ethanol fractionation process, which includes a series of cold-ethanol precipitation, centrifugation and/or filtration steps followed by pasteurization of the final product at 60 ± 0.5°C for 10 - 11 hours. This process accomplishes both purification of albumin and reduction of viruses.
In vitro studies demonstrate that the manufacturing process for BUMINATE 25%, Albumin (Human), 25% Solution provides for significant viral reduction. These viral reduction studies, summarized in Table 1, demonstrate viral clearance during the manufacturing process for BUMINATE 25%, Albumin (Human), 25% Solution using human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) both as a relevant virus in its own right and as model virus for HIV-2 and other enveloped RNA viruses; bovine viral diarrheal virus (BVD), a model for lipid enveloped RNA viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV); porcine parvovirus (PPV), a model for non-lipid enveloped DNA viruses such as human parvovirus B19; hepatitis A virus (HAV), a relevant virus in its own right and a model for other non-lipid enveloped RNA viruses.
These studies indicate that specific steps in the manufacture of BUMINATE 25%, Albumin (Human), 25% Solution are capable of eliminating/inactivating a wide range of relevant and model viruses. Since the mechanism of virus elimination/inactivation at each step is different, the overall manufacturing process of BUMINATE 25%, Albumin (Human), 25% Solution is robust in reducing viral load.
Table 1: Summary of Viral Reduction Factor for Each Virus
and Processing Step
|Process Step||Viral Reduction Factor (log10)|
|Lipid Enveloped||Non-lipid Enveloped|
|Step 1: Processing of cryo-poorplasma to Fraction I+II+III centrifugate||1.2 ± 0.0||5.8 ± 0.0||4.6 ±0.5||1.9 ± 0.8||1.4 ± 0.1|
|Step 2: Processing of Fraction I+II+III centrifugate to Fraction IV1 centrifugate||2.8 ± 0.5||NCM||3.4 ± 0.4||1.9 ± 0.7||(1.2 ± 0.3)|
|Step 3: Processing of Fraction IV1 centrifugate to Fraction IV4 centrifugate/ filter press filtrate†||> 2.4 ±0.1/ > 2.4 ±0.1||> 4.4 ± 0.5/ > 4.5 ±0.5||> 4.8 ± 0.1/ > 4.8 ± 0.1||3.8 ± 0.1/ 2.9 ±0.2||2.2 ± 0.3/ 2.0 ± 0.3|
|Step 4: Processing of Fraction IV4 centrifugate/filter press filtrate to Fraction IV4 Cuno 70C filtrate††||> 1.6 ± 0.2/ > 1.7 ±0.1||NCM||> 4.1 ±0.5/ > 4.4 ±0.1||4.7 ±0.1/ 4.6 ±0.1||2.3 ±0.3/ 3.0 ±0.8|
|Step 5: Processing of Fraction V suspension to Cuno 90LP filtrate||(0.2 ± 0.2)||> 5.0 ±0.5||> 4.6 ±0.0||4.2 ±0.4||3.4 ±0.5|
|Step 6: Pasteurization||> 4.9 ±0.1||> 5.1 ±0.3||> 5.3 ±0.1||5.3 ±0.4||NT|
|Cumulative Reduction Factor**, log10||> 12.9/13.0||> 20.3/20.4||> 26.8/27.1||21.8/20.8||9.3/9.8|
|NT Not tested.
NCM No virus reduction claim made at this step.
* Since the reduction factor of ≤ 1.0 is within the variability limit of the assay, these values are not included in the computation of the cumulative reduction factor.
† Two reduction factors indicate the two liquid-solid separation options available at this step.
†† Two reduction factors indicate the two starting materials at this step.
** Two cumulative reduction factors derived from the use of the two liquid-solid separation options available at Step 3.
4. Tullis JL: Albumin, 1. Background and use, and 2. Guidelines for clinical use. JAMA 237:355-360,460-463, 1977
5. Peters T Jr: Serum albumin, in The Plasma Proteins, 2nd ed, Vol 1. Putnam FW (ed). New York, Academic Press, 1975, pp 133-181
6. Finlayson JS: Albumin products. Semin Thromb Hemostas 6:85-120, 1980
7. Janeway CA, Berenberg W, Hutchins G: Indications and uses of blood, blood derivatives and blood substitutes. Med Clin N Amer 29:1069-1094, 1945
8. Janeway CA, Gibson ST, Woodruff LM, et al: Chemical, clinical and immunological studies on the products of human plasma fractionation. VII. Concentrated human serum albumin. J Clin Invest 23:465-490, 1944
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/20/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Buminate 25% Information
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