"What are anxiety medications and how do they work?
Anxiety is a normal and useful response to potentially stressful or dangerous situations. It increases our awareness of what's going on around us. For most people, anxiety is short-live"...
Buspirone hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the management of anxiety disorders or the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety. Anxiety or tension associated with the stress of everyday life usually does not require treatment with an anxiolytic.
The efficacy of buspirone hydrochloride tablets have been demonstrated in controlled clinical trials of outpatients whose diagnosis roughly corresponds to Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Many of the patients enrolled in these studies also had coexisting depressive symptoms and buspirone hydrochloride tablets relieved anxiety in the presence of these coexisting depressive symptoms. The patients evaluated in these studies had experienced symptoms for periods of 1 month to over 1 year prior to the study, with an average symptom duration of 6 months. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (300.02) is described in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, III1 as follows:
Generalized, persistent anxiety (of at least 1 month continual duration), manifested by symptoms from three of the four following categories:
Shakiness, jitteriness, jumpiness, trembling, tension, muscle aches, fatigability, inability to relax, eyelid twitch, furrowed brow, strained face, fidgeting, restlessness, easy startle.
Sweating, heart pounding or racing, cold, clammy hands, dry mouth, dizziness, lightheadedness, paresthesias (tingling in hands or feet), upset stomach, hot or cold spells, frequent urination, diarrhea, discomfort in the pit of the stomach, lump in the throat, flushing, pallor, high resting pulse and respiration rate.
Anxiety, worry, fear, rumination, and anticipation of misfortune to self or others.
Vigilance and Scanning
Hyperattentiveness resulting in distractibility, difficulty in concentrating, insomnia, feeling "on edge," irritability, impatience.
The above symptoms would not be due to another mental disorder, such as a depressive disorder or schizophrenia. However, mild depressive symptoms are common in GAD.
The effectiveness of buspirone hydrochloride tablets in long-term use, that is, for more than 3 to 4 weeks, has not been demonstrated in controlled trials. There is no body of evidence available that systematically addresses the appropriate duration of treatment for GAD. However, in a study of longterm use, 264 patients were treated with buspirone hydrochloride tablets for 1 year without ill effect. Therefore, the physician who elects to use buspirone hydrochloride tablets for extended periods should periodically reassess the usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The recommended initial dose is 15 mg daily (7.5 mg b.i.d.). To achieve an optimal therapeutic response, at intervals of 2 to 3 days the dosage may be increased 5 mg per day, as needed. The maximum daily dosage should not exceed 60 mg per day. In clinical trials allowing dose titration, divided doses of 20 mg to 30 mg per day were commonly employed.
The bioavailability of buspirone is increased when given with food as compared to the fasted state (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Consequently, patients should take buspirone in a consistent manner with regard to the timing of dosing; either always with or always without food.
When buspirone is to be given with a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, the dosage recommendations described in the DRUG INTERACTIONS section should be followed.
Buspirone Hydrochloride Tablets USP, 5 mg are white to off-white, capsule-shaped, flat- faced, beveled-edge tablets debossed with bisect on one side; one side of bisect is debossed with 'ZE' and another is debossed with '36' and other side is plain
Manufacturer details: N/A. Revised: May 2016This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/31/2016
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