February 12, 2016
Recommended Topic Related To:

Bydureon

"Nov. 27, 2012 -- Countries that mix high-fructose corn syrup into processed foods and soft drinks have higher rates of diabetes than countries that don't use the sweetener, a new study shows.

In a study published in the journal Glo"...

A A A

Bydureon




CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism Of Action

Incretins, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion and exhibit other antihyperglycemic actions following their release into the circulation from the gut. BYDUREON is a GLP-1 receptor agonist that enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta-cell, suppresses inappropriately elevated glucagon secretion, and slows gastric emptying.

The amino acid sequence of exenatide partially overlaps that of human GLP-1. Exenatide is a GLP-1 receptor agonist that has been shown to bind and activate the human GLP-1 receptor in vitro. This leads to an increase in both glucose-dependent synthesis of insulin and in vivo secretion of insulin from pancreatic beta cells, by mechanisms involving cyclic AMP and/or other intracellular signaling pathways. Exenatide promotes insulin release from pancreatic betacells in the presence of elevated glucose concentrations.

Pharmacodynamics

Exenatide improves glycemic control by reducing fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes through the actions described below.

Glucose-Dependent Insulin Secretion

The effect of exenatide infusion on glucose-dependent insulin secretion rates (ISR) was investigated in 11 healthy subjects. In these healthy subjects, on average, the ISR response was glucose-dependent (Figure 1). Exenatide did not impair the normal glucagon response to hypoglycemia.

Figure 1: Mean (SE) Insulin Secretion Rates During Infusion of Exenatide or Placebo by Treatment, Time, and Glycemic Condition in Healthy Subjects

The effect of exenatide infusion on glucose-dependent insulin secretion rates (ISR) - Illustration

SE = standard error.

Notes: 5 mmol = 90 mg/dL, 4 mmol/L = 72 mg/dL, 3.2 mmol/L = 58 mg/dL; Study medication infusion was started at time = 0 minutes.

Statistical assessments were for the last 30 minutes of each glycemic step, during which the target glucose concentrations were maintained.

* p < 0.05, exenatide treatment relative to placebo.

Glucagon Secretion

In patients with type 2 diabetes, exenatide moderates glucagon secretion and lowers serum glucagon concentrations during periods of hyperglycemia.

Gastric Emptying

Exenatide slows gastric emptying, thereby reducing the rate at which postprandial glucose appears in the circulation.

Food Intake

Infusion of exenatide in 8 healthy subjects resulted in a 19% decrease in caloric intake following an ad libitum meal.

Fasting and Postprandial Glucose

In a separate 15-week controlled study where fasting glucose was assessed on a weekly basis, BYDUREON treatment resulted in a mean reduction in fasting glucose of 17 mg/dL following 2 weeks of therapy with full effect on fasting glucose not observed until approximately 9 weeks.

In a 30-week controlled study of exenatide extended-release compared to BYETTA, postprandial glucose levels were measured during a mixed meal tolerance test in a subset of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Following treatment for 14 weeks, when steady-state concentrations had been achieved (approximately 280-310 pg/mL), the LS mean change from baseline was significantly greater with BYETTA (-126 mg/dL) than exenatide extended-release (-96 mg/dL).

Cardiac Electrophysiology

The effect of exenatide at therapeutic (253 pg/mL) and supratherapeutic (627 pg/mL) concentrations, following an intravenous infusion on QTc interval was evaluated in a randomized, placebo- and active-controlled (moxifloxacin 400 mg) three-period crossover thorough QT study in 74 healthy subjects. The upper bound of the one-sided 95% confidence interval for the largest placebo adjusted, baseline-corrected QTc based on population correction method (QTcP) was below 10 ms. Therefore, exenatide was not associated with prolongation of the QTc interval at therapeutic and supratherapeutic concentrations.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Following a single dose of BYDUREON, exenatide is released from the microspheres over approximately 10 weeks. There is an initial period of release of surface-bound exenatide followed by a gradual release of exenatide from the microspheres, which results in two subsequent peaks of exenatide in plasma at around week 2 and week 6 to 7, respectively, representing the hydration and erosion of the microspheres.

Following initiation of once every 7 days (weekly) administration of 2 mg BYDUREON, gradual increase in the plasma exenatide concentration is observed over 6 to 7 weeks. After 6 to 7 weeks, mean exenatide concentrations of approximately 300 pg/mL were maintained over once every 7 days (weekly) dosing intervals indicating that steady state was achieved.

Distribution

The mean apparent volume of distribution of exenatide following subcutaneous administration of a single dose of BYETTA is 28.3 L and is expected to remain unchanged for BYDUREON.

Metabolism and Elimination

Nonclinical studies have shown that exenatide is predominantly eliminated by glomerular filtration with subsequent proteolytic degradation. The mean apparent clearance of exenatide in humans is 9.1 L/hour and is independent of the dose. Approximately 10 weeks after discontinuation of BYDUREON therapy, plasma exenatide concentrations generally fall below the minimal detectable concentration of 10 pg/mL.

Drug Interactions

Acetaminophen

When 1000 mg acetaminophen tablets were administered, either with or without a meal, following 14 weeks of BYDUREON therapy (2 mg weekly), no significant changes in acetaminophen AUC were observed compared to the control period. Acetaminophen Cmax decreased by 16% (fasting) and 5% (fed) and Tmax was increased from approximately 1 hour in the control period to 1.4 hours (fasting) and 1.3 hours (fed).

The following drug interactions have been studied using BYETTA. The potential for drug-drug interaction with BYDUREON is expected to be similar to that of BYETTA.

Digoxin

Administration of repeated doses of BYETTA 30 minutes before oral digoxin (0.25 mg once daily) decreased the Cmax of digoxin by 17% and delayed the Tmax of digoxin by approximately 2.5 hours; however, the overall steady-state pharmacokinetic exposure (e.g., AUC) of digoxin was not changed.

Lovastatin

Administration of BYETTA (10 mcg twice daily) 30 minutes before a single oral dose of lovastatin (40 mg) decreased the AUC and Cmax of lovastatin by approximately 40% and 28%, respectively, and delayed the Tmax by about 4 hours compared with lovastatin administered alone. In the 30-week controlled clinical trials of BYETTA, the use of BYETTA in patients already receiving HMG CoA reductase inhibitors was not associated with consistent changes in lipid profiles compared to baseline.

Lisinopril

In patients with mild to moderate hypertension stabilized on lisinopril (5-20 mg/day), BYETTA (10 mcg twice daily) did not alter steady-state Cmax or AUC of lisinopril. Lisinopril steady-state Tmax was delayed by 2 hours. There were no changes in 24-hour mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Oral Contraceptives

The effect of BYETTA (10 mcg twice daily) on single and on multiple doses of a combination oral contraceptive (30 mcg ethinyl estradiol plus 150 mcg levonorgestrel) was studied in healthy female subjects. Repeated daily doses of the oral contraceptive (OC) given 30 minutes after BYETTA administration decreased the Cmax of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel by 45% and 27%, respectively, and delayed the Tmax of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel by 3.0 hours and 3.5 hours, respectively, as compared to the oral contraceptive administered alone. Administration of repeated daily doses of the OC one hour prior to BYETTA administration decreased the mean Cmax of ethinyl estradiol by 15%, but the mean Cmax of levonorgestrel was not significantly changed as compared to when the OC was given alone. BYETTA did not alter the mean trough concentrations of levonorgestrel after repeated daily dosing of the oral contraceptive for both regimens. However, the mean trough concentration of ethinyl estradiol was increased by 20% when the OC was administered 30 minutes after BYETTA administration injection as compared to when the OC was given alone. The effect of BYETTA on OC pharmacokinetics is confounded by the possible food effect on OC in this study [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Warfarin

Administration of warfarin (25 mg) 35 minutes after repeated doses of BYETTA (5 mcg twice daily on days 1-2 and 10 mcg twice daily on days 3-9) in healthy volunteers delayed warfarin Tmax by approximately 2 hours. No clinically relevant effects on Cmax or AUC of S- and Renantiomers of warfarin were observed. BYETTA did not significantly alter the pharmacodynamic properties (e.g., international normalized ratio) of warfarin [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Specific Populations

Renal Impairment

BYDUREON has not been studied in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min) or end-stage renal disease receiving dialysis. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of renally impaired patients receiving 2 mg BYDUREON indicate that there is a 62% and 33% increase in exposure in moderate (N=10) and mild (N=56) renally impaired patients, respectively, as compared to patients with normal renal function (N=84).

In a study of BYETTA in subjects with end-stage renal disease receiving dialysis, mean exenatide exposure increased by 3.4-fold compared to that of subjects with normal renal function [see Use in Specific Populations].

Hepatic Impairment

BYDUREON has not been studied in patients with acute or chronic hepatic impairment [see Use In Specific Populations].

Age

Population pharmacokinetic analysis of patients ranging from 22 to 73 years of age suggests that age does not influence the pharmacokinetic properties of exenatide [see Use In Specific Populations].

Gender

Population pharmacokinetic analysis suggests that gender does not influence the steady-state concentrations of exenatide following BYDUREON administration.

Race

There were no apparent differences in steady-state concentrations of exenatide among Caucasian, Hispanic, and Black patients following BYDUREON administration.

Body Mass Index

Population pharmacokinetic analysis of patients with body mass indices (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m² and < 30 kg/m² suggests that BMI has no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of exenatide.

Pediatric

BYDUREON has not been studied in pediatric patients [see Use in Specific Populations].

Reproductive And Developmental Toxicology

A rat embryo-fetal developmental toxicity study was conducted with exenatide extended-release. A complete reproductive and developmental toxicity program was conducted with exenatide, the active ingredient in BYDUREON.

Fetuses from pregnant rats given subcutaneous doses of exenatide extended-release at 0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg on gestation days 6, 9, 12, and 15 demonstrated reduced fetal growth at all doses and produced skeletal ossification deficits at 1 and 3 mg/kg in association with maternal effects (decreased food intake and decreased body weight gain). There was no evidence of malformations. Doses of 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg correspond to systemic exposures of 3, 7, and 17 times, respectively, the human exposure resulting from the recommended dose of 2 mg/week, based on AUC.

In female mice given twice-daily subcutaneous doses of 6, 68, or 760 mcg/kg/day exenatide, the active ingredient in BYDUREON, beginning 2 weeks prior to and throughout mating until gestation day 7, there were no adverse fetal effects at doses up to 760 mcg/kg/day, systemic exposures up to 148 times the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 2 mg/week, based on AUC.

In pregnant mice given twice-daily subcutaneous doses of 6, 68, 460, or 760 mcg/kg/day exenatide, the active ingredient in BYDUREON, from gestation day 6 through 15 (organogenesis), cleft palate (some with holes), and irregular fetal skeletal ossification of rib and skull bones were observed at 6 mcg/kg/day, a systemic exposure equal to the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 2 mg/week, based on AUC.

In pregnant rabbits given twice-daily subcutaneous doses of 0.2, 2, 22, 156, or 260 mcg/kg/day exenatide, the active ingredient in BYDUREON, from gestation day 6 through 18 (organogenesis), irregular fetal skeletal ossifications were observed at 2 mcg/kg/day, a systemic exposure 4 times the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 2 mg/week, based on AUC.

In pregnant mice given twice-daily subcutaneous doses of 6, 68, or 760 mcg/kg/day exenatide, the active ingredient in BYDUREON, from gestation day 6 through lactation day 20 (weaning), an increased number of neonatal deaths was observed on postpartum days 2 to 4 in dams given 6 mcg/kg/day, a systemic exposure equal to the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 2 mg/week, based on AUC.

Clinical Studies

BYDUREON has been studied as monotherapy and in combination with metformin, a sulfonylurea, a thiazolidinedione, a combination of metformin and a sulfonylurea, or a combination of metformin and a thiazolidinedione.

Monotherapy

BYDUREON Monotherapy versus Metformin, Sitagliptin, and Pioglitazone

A 26-week, randomized, comparator-controlled trial was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of BYDUREON to metformin, sitagliptin, and pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes whose glycemic control was inadequate with diet and exercise.

A total of 820 patients were studied: 552 (67%) were Caucasian, 102 (12%) were East Asian, 71 (9%) were West Asian, 65 (8%) were Hispanic, 25 (3.0%) were Black, 4 (0.5%) were Native American, and 1 was classified otherwise. The mean baseline HbA1c was 8.5%. Patients were randomly assigned to receive BYDUREON 2 mg once every seven days (weekly), titrated metformin from 1000 to 2500 mg/day, sitagliptin 100 mg/day or titrated pioglitazone from 30 to 45 mg/day, all dosed according to approved labeling.

The primary endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline to week 26 (or the last value at time of early discontinuation). Treatment with BYDUREON 2 mg once weekly (QW) resulted in mean HbA1c reduction that was statistically significantly greater compared to sitagliptin 100 mg/day. The mean reduction in HbA1c was non-inferior compared with metformin 1000-2500 mg/day (mean dose 2077 mg/day at study endpoint). Non-inferiority of BYDUREON 2 mg QW to pioglitazone 30-45 mg/day (mean dose 40 mg/day at study endpoint) in reducing HbA1c after 26 weeks of treatment was not demonstrated (the mean change from baseline in HbA1c after 26 weeks was -1.6% with Bydureon and -1.7% with pioglitazone). The non-inferiority margin was set at +0.3% in this study. The results for the primary endpoint at 26 weeks are summarized in Table 4.

Table 4: Results of 26-Week Trial of BYDUREON Monotherapy versus Metformin, Sitagliptin, and Pioglitazone

  BYDUREON 2 mg QW Metformin 1000-2500 (mean dose 2077) mg/day Sitagliptin 100 mg/day Pioglitazone 30-45 (mean dose 40) mg/day
Intent-to-Treat Population (N) 248 246 163 163
HbA1c (%)
  Mean Baseline 8.4 8.6 8.4 8.5
  Mean Change at Week 26* -1.6 -1.5 -1.2 -1.7
  Difference from metformin* [Bonferroni-adjusted 98.3% CI] -0.05
[-0.26, 0.17]
     
  Difference from sitagliptin* [Bonferroni-adjusted 98.3% CI] -0.39†
[-0.63, -0.16]
     
  Difference from pioglitazone* [Bonferroni-adjusted 98.3% CI] 0.16
[-0.08, 0.41]
     
N = number of patients in each treatment group.
Note: mean change is least squares mean change.
Note: The primary efficacy analysis was adjusted for multiple comparisons and a two-sided 98.3% confidence interval was utilized to assess difference between treatments.
Note: HbA1c change data at 26 weeks were available from 86%, 87%, 85%, and 82% of the randomized subjects in the BYDUREON, metformin, sitagliptin, and pioglitazone groups, respectively.
QW = once weekly.
* Least squares means were obtained using a mixed model repeated measure analysis with treatment, pooled country, visit, baseline HbA1c value, and treatment by visit interaction as fixed effects, and subject as a random effect.
† p < 0.001, treatment vs comparator.

The proportion of patients with a week 26 value achieving HbA1c of less than 7% at week 26 were 56%, 52%, 40%, and 55% for BYDUREON, metformin, sitagliptin, and pioglitazone, respectively. Patients who did achieve an HbA1C goal < 7% and discontinued before week 26 were not included as responders. The mean changes from baseline to week 26 for fasting serum glucose were -41 mg/dL, -36 mg/dL, -20 mg/dL and -46 mg/dL, and for body weight were - 2.0 kg, -2.0 kg, -0.8 kg and +1.5 kg for BYDUREON, metformin, sitagliptin, and pioglitazone, respectively.

Combination Therapy

BYDUREON versus Sitagliptin and Pioglitazone, All as Add-on to Metformin Therapy

A 26-week double-blind comparator-controlled trial was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of BYDUREON to sitagliptin and pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes whose glycemic control was inadequate with metformin therapy.

A total of 491 patients were studied: 168 (34.2%) were Caucasian, 143 (29.1%) were Hispanic, 119 (24.2%) were Asian, 52 (10.6%) were Black, 3 (0.6%) were Native American, and 6 (1.2%) were classified otherwise. The mean baseline HbA1c was 8.5%. Patients were randomly assigned to receive BYDUREON 2 mg once every 7 days (weekly), sitagliptin 100 mg/day or pioglitazone 45 mg/day, in addition to their existing metformin therapy.

The primary endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline to week 26 (or the last value at time of early discontinuation). In this study, treatment with BYDUREON 2 mg QW resulted in a statistically significantly greater mean HbA1c reduction compared to sitagliptin 100 mg/day. There was a numerically greater reduction in HbA1c with BYDUREON compared to pioglitazone, but there was not sufficient evidence to conclude superiority of BYDUREON 2 mg QW to pioglitazone 45 mg/day in reducing HbA1c after 26 weeks of treatment. Results for the primary endpoint at 26 weeks are summarized in Table 5.

Table 5: Results of 26-Week Trial of BYDUREON versus Sitagliptin and Pioglitazone, All as Add-On to Metformin Therapy

  BYDUREON 2 mg QW Sitagliptin 100 mg/day Pioglitazone 45 mg/day
Intent-to-Treat Population (N) 160 166 165
HbA1C (%)
  Mean Baseline 8.6 8.5 8.5
  Mean Change at Week 26* -1.5 -0.9 -1.2
  Difference from sitagliptin* [95% CI] -0.63
[-0.89, -0.37]
   
  Difference from pioglitazone* [95% CI] -0.32
[-0.57, -0.06]
   
N = number of patients in each treatment group.
Note: mean change is least squares mean change.
QW = once weekly.
* Least squares means were obtained using an ANCOVA model with treatment, baseline HbA1c stratum, and country as fixed effects. Missing week 26 data (28%, 18%, and 24% for the BYDUREON, sitagliptin, and pioglitazone groups, respectively) were imputed by the LOCF technique.

The proportion of patients with a week 26 value achieving HbA1c of less than 7% at week 26 were 46%, 30%, and 39% for BYDUREON, sitagliptin, and pioglitazone, respectively. Patients who did achieve an HbA1c goal < 7% and discontinued before week 26 were not included as responders. The mean changes from baseline to week 26 for fasting serum glucose were -32 mg/dL, -16 mg/dL and -27 mg/dL, and for body weight were -2.3 kg, -0.8 kg and +2.8 kg for BYDUREON, sitagliptin, and pioglitazone, respectively.

BYDUREON versus Insulin Glargine, Both as Add-on to Metformin or Metformin + Sulfonylurea Therapy

A 26-week open-label comparator-controlled trial was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of BYDUREON to titrated insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes whose glycemic control was inadequate with metformin or metformin plus sulfonylurea therapy.

A total of 456 patients were studied: 379 (83.1%) were Caucasian, 47 (10.3%) were Hispanic, 25 (5.5%) were East Asian, 3 (0.7%) were Black, and 2 (0.4%) were West Asian. Background therapy was either metformin (70%) or metformin plus sulfonylurea (30%). The mean baseline HbA1c was 8.3%. Patients were randomly assigned to receive BYDUREON 2 mg once every 7 days (weekly) or insulin glargine once daily in addition to their existing oral antidiabetic therapy. Insulin glargine was dosed to a target fasting glucose concentration of 72 to 100 mg/dL. The mean dose of insulin glargine was 10 units/day at baseline and 31 units/day at endpoint. At week 26, 21 % of insulin glargine treated patients were at fasting glucose goal. The primary endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline to week 26 (or the last value at time of early discontinuation). Treatment with BYDUREON once weekly resulted in a mean reduction in HbA1c from baseline at 26 weeks of -1.5%. The mean reduction in HbA1c seen in the insulin glargine arm at 26 weeks was -1.3%. The difference in observed effect size between BYDUREON and glargine in this trial excluded the pre-specified non-inferiority margin of +0.3%.

The proportion of patients with a week 26 value achieving HbA1c of less than 7% at week 26 were 57% and 48% for BYDUREON and insulin glargine, respectively. Patients who did achieve an HbA1C goal < 7% and discontinued before week 26 were not included as responders. The mean changes from baseline to week 26 for fasting serum glucose in this study were - 38 mg/dL and -50 mg/dL, and for body weight were -2.6 kg and +1.4 kg for BYDUREON and insulin glargine, respectively.

BYDUREON versus BYETTA, Both as Monotherapy or as Add-On to Metformin, a Sulfonylurea, a Thiazolidinedione, or Combination of Oral Agents

A 24-week, randomized, open-label trial was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of BYDUREON to BYETTA in patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycemic control with diet and exercise alone or with oral antidiabetic therapy, including metformin, a sulfonylurea, a thiazolidinedione, or combination of two of those therapies.

A total of 252 patients were studied: 149 (59%) were Caucasian, 78 (31%) Hispanic, 15 (6%) Black, and 10 (4%) Asian. Patients were treated with diet and exercise alone (19%), a single oral antidiabetic agent (47%), or combination therapy of oral antidiabetic agents (35%). The mean baseline HbA1c was 8.4%. Patients were randomly assigned to receive BYDUREON 2 mg once every 7 days (weekly) or BYETTA (10 mcg twice daily), in addition to existing oral antidiabetic agents. Patients assigned to BYETTA initiated treatment with 5 mcg twice daily then increased the dose to 10 mcg twice daily after 4 weeks.

The primary endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline to week 24 (or the last value at time of early discontinuation). Treatment with BYDUREON 2 mg QW resulted in a statistically significantly greater mean HbA1c reduction compared to BYETTA 10 mcg twice daily. Change in body weight was a secondary endpoint. Twenty-four week study results are summarized in Table 6.

Table 6: Results of 24-Week Trial of BYDUREON versus BYETTA, Both as Monotherapy or as Add-On to Metformin, a Sulfonylurea, a Thiazolidinedione, or Combination of Oral Agents

  BYDUREON 2 mg QW BYETTA 10 mcg twice daily*
Intent-to-Treat Population (N) 129 123
HbA,c (%)
  Mean Baseline 8.5 8.4
  Mean Change at Week 24† -1.6 -0.9
  Difference from BYETTA† [95% CI] -0.7
[-0.9, -0.4]¶
 
Percentage Achieving HbA1c < 7% at Week 24 (%) 58¶ 30
Fasting Plasma Glucose (mg/dL)
  Mean Baseline 173 168
  Mean Change at Week 24 -25 -5
  Difference from BYETTA† [95% CI] -20
[-31, -10]¶
 
N = number of patients in each treatment group.
Note: mean change is least squares mean change.
* BYETTA 5 mcg twice daily before the morning and evening meals for 4 weeks followed by 10 mcg twice daily for 20 weeks.
† Least squares (LS) means are adjusted for baseline HbA1c strata, background antihyperglycemic therapy, and baseline value of the dependent variable (if applicable).
¶ p < 0.001, treatment vs comparator.

Reductions from mean baseline (97/94 kg) in body weight were observed in both BYDUREON (-2.3 kg) and BYETTA (-1.4 kg) treatment groups.

BYDUREON versus Liraglutide, Both as Add-on to Metformin, a Sulfonylurea, Metformin + Sulfonylurea, or Metformin + Pioglitazone Therapy

A 26-week open-label comparator-controlled trial was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of BYDUREON to liraglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes whose glycemic control was inadequate with metformin, a sulfonylurea, metformin plus sulfonylurea, or metformin plus pioglitazone therapy.

A total of 911 patients were studied: 753 (82.7%) were Caucasian, 111 (12.2%) were Asian, 32 (3.5%) were American Indian or Alaska Native, 8 (0.9%) were Black, 6 (0.7%) were multiple races, and 1 (0.1%) was Pacific Islander. Background therapy was either a single oral antidiabetic agent (35%) or a combination of oral antidiabetic agents (65%). The mean baseline HbA1c was 8.4%. Patients were randomly assigned to receive BYDUREON 2 mg once every 7 days (weekly) or liraglutide uptitrated from 0.6 mg/day to 1.2 mg/day, then 1.8 mg/day in addition to their existing oral antidiabetic therapy. Each titration was to be completed after at least one week, but could be delayed if the patient had severe nausea or vomiting as established by the investigator. Patients not tolerating the 1.8 mg/day dose of liraglutide by week 4 were discontinued from the study.

The primary endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline to week 26 (or the last value at time of early discontinuation). Treatment with BYDUREON once weekly resulted in a mean reduction in HbA1 c from baseline at 26 weeks of -1.3%. The mean reduction in HbA1c seen in the liraglutide arm at 26 weeks was -1.5%. The HbA1c reduction with BYDUREON did not meet predefined non-inferiority criteria compared to liraglutide 1.8 mg/day. The non-inferiority margin was set at +0.25% in this study. Results for the primary endpoint at 26 weeks are summarized in Table 7.

Table 7: Results of 26-Week Trial of BYDUREON versus Liraglutide, Both as Add-On to Metformin, a Sulfonylurea, Metformin + Sulfonylurea, or Metformin + Pioglitazone Therapy

  BYDUREON 2 mg QW Liraglutide 1.8 mg/day
Intent-to-Treat Population (N) 461 450
HbA1c (%)
  Mean Baseline 8.5 8.4
  Mean Change at Week 26* -1.3 -1.5
  Difference from liraglutide* [95% CI] 0.2
[0.08, 0.33]
 
N = number of patients in each treatment group.
Note: mean change is least squares mean change.
Note: HbA1c change data at 26 weeks were available from 85% and 86% of the randomized subjects in the BYDUREON and liraglutide groups, respectively.
QW = once weekly.
* Least squares means were obtained using a mixed model repeated measure analysis with treatment, country, OAD stratum, baseline HbA1c stratum, visit, baseline HbA1c, and treatment by visit interaction as fixed effects, and subject as a random effect.

The proportion of patients with a week 26 value achieving HbA1c of less than 7% at week 26 were 48% and 56% for BYDUREON and liraglutide, respectively. Patients who did achieve an HbA1c goal < 7% and discontinued before week 26 were not included as responders. The mean changes from baseline to week 26 for fasting serum glucose were -32 mg/dL and -38 mg/dL, and for body weight were -2.7 kg and -3.6 kg for BYDUREON and liraglutide, respectively.

Last reviewed on RxList: 10/26/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

 

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


Women's Health

Find out what women really need.