"Healthcare providers and parents should stop giving codeine to children, according to a new clinical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics, published online September 19 in Pediatrics. The authors also call for formal restriction "...
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as ibuprofen, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events [see Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation].
Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery
Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10-14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post-MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years of follow-up.
Avoid the use of CALDOLOR in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If CALDOLOR is used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.
Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation
NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occurred in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3-6 months and in about 2%-4% of patients treated for one year. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.
Risk Factors For GI Bleeding, Ulceration And Perforation
Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding who used NSAIDs had a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients without these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk of GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include longer duration of NSAID therapy; concomitant use of oral corticosteroids, aspirin, anticoagulants, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); smoking; use of alcohol; older age; and poor general health status. Most postmarketing reports of fatal GI events occurred in elderly or debilitated patients. Additionally, patients with advanced liver disease and/or coagulopathy are at increased risk for GI bleeding.
Strategies to Minimize the GI Risks in NSAID-treated patients:
- Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest possible duration.
- Avoid administration of more than one NSAID at a time.
- Avoid use in patients at higher risk unless benefits are expected to outweigh the increased risk of bleeding. For such patients, as well as those with active GI bleeding, consider alternate therapies other than NSAIDs.
- Remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy.
- If a serious GI adverse event is suspected, promptly initiate evaluation and treatment, and discontinue CALDOLOR until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out.
- In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, monitor patients more closely for evidence of GI bleeding [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Elevations of ALT or AST (three or more times the upper limit of normal [ULN]) have been reported in approximately 1% of NSAID-treated patients in clinical trials. In addition, rare, sometimes fatal, cases of severe hepatic injury, including fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported.
Elevations of ALT or AST (less than three times ULN) may occur in up to 15% of patients treated with NSAIDs, including ibuprofen.
Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, diarrhea, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms).If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), discontinue CALDOLOR immediately, and perform a clinical evaluation of the patient.
NSAIDs, including CALDOLOR, can lead to new onset of
hypertension or worsening of pre
-existing hypertension, either of which
may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking angiotensin
converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, thiazide diuretics, or loop diuretics may
have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs [see DRUG
Monitor blood pressure (BP) during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.
Heart Failure And Edema
The Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists' Collaboration meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials demonstrated an approximately two-fold increase in hospitalizations for heart failure in COX-2 selective-treated patients and nonselective NSAID-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. In a Danish National Registry study of patients with heart failure, NSAID use increased the risk of MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and death.
Additionally, fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients treated with NSAIDs. Use of ibuprofen may blunt the CV effects of several therapeutic agents used to treat these medical conditions (e.g., diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Avoid the use of CALDOLOR in patients with severe heart failure unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening heart failure. If CALDOLOR is used in patients with severe heart failure, monitor patients for signs of worsening heart failure.
Renal Toxicity And Hyperkalemia
Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury.
Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, dehydration, hypovolemia, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors or ARBs, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.
No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of CALDOLOR in patients with advanced renal disease. The renal effects of CALDOLOR may hasten the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with preexisting renal disease.
Correct volume status in dehydrated or hypovolemic patients prior to initiating CALDOLOR. Monitor renal function in patients with renal or hepatic impairment, heart failure, dehydration, or hypovolemia during use of CALDOLOR [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Avoid the use of CALDOLOR in patients with advanced renal disease unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening renal function. If CALDOLOR is used in patients with advanced renal disease, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.
Increases in serum potassium concentration, including hyperkalemia, have been reported with use of NSAIDs, even in some patients without renal impairment. In patients with normal renal function, these effects have been attributed to a hyporeninemichypoaldosteronism state.
Ibuprofen has been associated with anaphylactic reactions in patients with and without known hypersensitivity to ibuprofen and in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and Exacerbation Of Asthma Related To Aspirin Sensitivity].
Seek emergency help if anaphylactic reaction occurs.
Exacerbation Of Asthma Related To Aspirin Sensitivity
A subpopulation of patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma which may include chronic rhinosinusitis complicated by nasal polyps; severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm; and/or intolerance to aspirin and other NSAIDs. Because cross-reactivity between aspirin and other NSAIDs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, CALDOLOR is contraindicated in patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. When CALDOLOR is used in patients with preexisting asthma (without known aspirin sensitivity), monitor patients for changes in the signs and symptoms of asthma.
Serious Skin Reactions
NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, can cause serious skin adverse reactions such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Inform patients about the signs and symptoms of serious skin reactions, and to discontinue the use of CALDOLOR at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. CALDOLOR is contraindicated in patients with previous serious skin reactions to NSAIDs [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Premature Closure Of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus
Ibuprofen may cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including CALDOLOR, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks of gestation (third trimester) [see Use in Specific Populations].
Anemia has occurred in NSAID-treated patients. This may be due to occult or gross GI blood loss, fluid retention, or an incompletely described effect on erythropoiesis. If a patient treated with CALDOLOR has any signs or symptoms of anemia, monitor hemoglobin or hematocrit.
NSAIDs, including CALDOLOR may increase the risk of bleeding events. Co-morbid conditions such as coagulation disorder, concomitant use of warfarin, other anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may increase this risk. Monitor these patients for signs of bleeding [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Masking Of Inflammation And Fever
The pharmacological activity of CALDOLOR in reducing inflammation, and possibly fever, may diminish the utility of diagnostic signs in detecting infections.
Because serious GI bleeding, hepatotoxicity, and renal injury can occur without warning symptoms or signs, consider monitoring patients on long-term NSAID treatment with a CBC and a chemistry profile periodically.
Blurred or diminished vision, scotomata, and changes in color vision have been reported with oral ibuprofen. Discontinue ibuprofen if a patient develops such complaints, and refer the patient for an ophthalmologic examination that includes central visual fields and color vision testing.
Aseptic meningitis with fever and coma has been observed in patients on oral ibuprofen therapy. Although it is probably more likely to occur in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and related connective tissue diseases, it has been reported in patients who do not have underlying chronic disease. If signs or symptoms of meningitis develop in a patient on ibuprofen, give consideration to whether or not the signs or symptoms are related to ibuprofen therapy.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide) that accompanies each prescription dispensed. Patients, families, or their caregivers should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with CALDOLOR and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy.
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of cardiovascular thrombotic events, including chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, or slurring of speech, and to report any of these symptoms to their health care provider immediately [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, And Perforation
Advise patients to report symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis to their health care provider. In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, inform patients of the increased risk for and the signs and symptoms of GI bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, diarrhea, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If these occur, instruct patients to stop CALDOLOR and seek immediate medical therapy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Heart Failure And Edema
Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of congestive heart failure including shortness of breath, unexplained weight gain, or edema and to contact their healthcare provider if such symptoms occur [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients of the signs of an anaphylactic reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). Instruct patients to seek immediate emergency help if these occur [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Serious Skin Reactions
Advise patients to stop CALDOLOR immediately if they develop any type of rash and to contact their healthcare provider as soon as possible [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise females of reproductive potential who desire pregnancy that NSAIDs, including CALDOLOR, may be associated with a reversible delay in ovulation [see Use In Specific Populations]
Inform pregnant women to avoid use of CALDOLOR and other NSAIDs starting at 30 weeks gestation because of the risk of the premature closing of the fetal ductus arteriosus [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use In Specific Populations].
Avoid Concomitant Use Of NSAIDs
Inform patients that the concomitant use of CALDOLOR with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) is not recommended due to the increased risk of gastrointestinal toxicity, and little or no increase in efficacy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Alert patients that NSAIDs may be present in “over the counter” medications for treatment of colds, fever, or insomnia.
Use Of NSAIDS And Low-Dose Aspirin
Inform patients not to use low-dose aspirin concomitantly with CALDOLOR until they talk to their healthcare provider [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Long-term studies in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of ibuprofen have not been conducted.
In published studies, ibuprofen was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames assay).
Impairment Of Fertility
In a published study, dietary administration of ibuprofen to male and female rats 8-weeks prior to and during mating at dose levels of 20 mg/kg (0.06-times the MRHD based on body surface area comparison) did not impact male or female fertility or litter size.
In other studies, adult mice were administered ibuprofen intraperitoneally at a dose of 5.6 mg/kg/day (0.0085-times the MRHD based on body surface area comparison) for 35 or 60 days in males and 35 days in females. There was no effect on sperm motility or viability in males but decreased ovulation was reported in females.
Use In Specific Populations
Use of NSAIDs, including CALDOLOR, during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including CALDOLOR, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks gestation (third trimester).
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of CALDOLOR in pregnant women. Data from observational studies regarding potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In the general U.S. population, all clinically recognized pregnancies, regardless of drug exposure, have a background rate of 2-4% for major malformations, and 15-20% for pregnancy loss. In published animal reproduction studies, there were no clear developmental effects at doses up to 0.4-times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) in the rabbit and 0.5-times in the MRHD rat when dosed throughout gestation. In contrast, an increase in membranous ventricular septal defects was reported in rats treated on Gestation Days 9 & 10 with 0.8-times the MRHD. Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as ibuprofen, resulted in increased pre-and post-implantation loss. Advise a pregnant woman of the potential risk to a fetus.
Labor or Delivery
There are no studies on the effects of CALDOLOR during labor or delivery. In animal studies, NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, cause delayed parturition, and increase the incidence of stillbirth.
In a published study, female rabbits given 7.5, 20, or 60 mg/kg ibuprofen (0.04, 0.12, or 0.36-times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 3200 mg of ibuprofen based on body surface area) from Gestation Days 1 to 29, no clear treatment-related adverse developmental effects were noted. This dose was associated with significant maternal toxicity (stomach ulcers, gastric lesions). In the same publication, female rats were administered 7.5, 20, 60, 180 mg/kg ibuprofen (0.02, 0.06, 0.18, 0.54-times the maximum daily dose) did not result in clear adverse developmental effects. Maternal toxicity (gastrointestinal lesions) was noted at 20 mg/kg and above.
In a published study, rats were orally dosed with 300 mg/kg ibuprofen (0.912-times the maximum human daily dose of 3200 mg based on body surface area) during Gestation Days 9 and 10 (critical time points for heart development in rats). Ibuprofen treatment resulted in an increase in the incidence of membranous ventricular septal defects. This dose was associated with significant maternal toxicity including gastrointestinal toxicity. One incidence each of a membranous ventricular septal defect and gastroschisis was noted in fetuses from rabbits treated with 500 mg/kg (3-times the maximum human daily dose) from Gestation Day 9-11.
No lactation studies have been conducted with CALDOLOR; however, limited published literature reports that, following oral administration, ibuprofen is present in human milk at relative infant doses of 0.06% to 0.6% of the maternal weight-adjusted daily dose. There are no reports of adverse effects on the breastfed infant and no effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for CALDOLOR and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the CALDOLOR or from the underlying maternal condition.
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including CALDOLOR, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandin- mediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also shown a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including CALDOLOR in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility.
The safety and effectiveness of CALDOLOR for the treatment of pain and fever in pediatric patients ages 6 months and older is supported by evidence of fever reduction from a multi-center, open-label study of hospitalized febrile pediatric patients along with safety data from exposure to CALDOLOR in 143 pediatric patients ages 6 months and older in two pediatric fever studies and one pediatric pain study, supportive data from other ibuprofen products approved in pediatric patients, and evidence from adequate and well controlled studies in adults. The effectiveness of CALDOLOR for the treatment of pain and fever has not been studied in pediatric patients less than 6 months of age. [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Clinical Study Experience, Pharmacokinetics, Clinical Studies].
Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Clinical studies of CALDOLOR did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Elderly patients are at increased risk for serious GI adverse events.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/7/2016
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