July 24, 2016
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Cambia

"Jan. 15, 2013 -- Women who have migraine with aura may have a higher risk of heart attacks, and they may face a higher risk of dangerous blood clots if they use certain hormonal contraceptives.

Those are the findings from two newly pu"...

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Cambia




Side Effects
Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The safety of a single dose of CAMBIA was evaluated in 2 placebo-controlled trials with a total of 634 migraine patients treated with CAMBIA for a single migraine headache. Following treatment with diclofenac potassium (either CAMBIA or diclofenac potassium immediate-release tablets [as a control]), 5 subjects (0.8%) withdrew from the studies; following placebo exposure, 1 subject (0.2%) withdrew.

The most common adverse reactions (i.e., that occurred in 1% or more of CAMBIA-treated patients) and more frequent with CAMBIA than with placebo were nausea and dizziness (see Table 1).

Table 1: Adverse Reactions With Incidence > 1% and Greater Than Placebo in Studies 1 and 2 Combined

Adverse Reactions CAMBIA
N=634
Placebo
N=646
Gastrointestinal
  Nausea 3% 2%
Nervous System
  Dizziness 1% 0.5%

The most common adverse events resulting in discontinuation of patients following CAMBIA dosing in controlled clinical trials were urticaria (0.2%) and flushing (0.2%). No withdrawals were due to a serious reaction.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of diclofenac or other NSAIDs. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Adverse Reactions Reported With Diclofenac And Other NSAIDs

In patients taking diclofenac or other NSAIDs, the most frequently reported adverse reactions occurring in approximately 1%-10% of patients are: GI reactions (including abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, gross bleeding/perforation, heartburn, nausea, GI ulcers [gastric/duodenal], and vomiting), abnormal renal function, anemia, dizziness, edema, elevated liver enzymes, headaches, increased bleeding time, pruritus, rashes, and tinnitus.

Additional adverse reactions reported in patients taking NSAIDs include occasionally:

Body as a Whole: Fever, infection, sepsis

Cardiovascular System: Congestive heart failure, hypertension, tachycardia, syncope

Digestive System: Dry mouth, esophagitis, gastric/peptic ulcers, gastritis, gastrointestinal bleeding, glossitis, hematemesis, hepatitis, jaundice

Hemic and Lymphatic System: Ecchymosis, eosinophilia, leukopenia, melena, purpura, rectal bleeding, stomatitis, thrombocytopenia

Metabolic and Nutritional: Weight changes

Nervous System: Anxiety, asthenia, confusion, depression, dream abnormalities, drowsiness, insomnia, malaise, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, tremors, vertigo

Respiratory System: Asthma, dyspnea

Skin and Appendages: Alopecia, photosensitivity, sweating increased

Special Senses: Blurred vision

Urogenital System: Cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, interstitial nephritis, oliguria/polyuria, proteinuria, renal failure

Other adverse reactions in patients taking NSAIDs, which occur rarely, are:

Body as a Whole: Anaphylactic reactions, appetite changes, death

Cardiovascular System: Arrhythmia, hypotension, myocardial infarction, palpitations, vasculitis

Digestive System: Colitis, eructation, liver failure, pancreatitis

Hemic and Lymphatic System: Agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia

Metabolic and Nutritional: Hyperglycemia

Nervous System: Convulsions, coma, hallucinations, meningitis

Respiratory System: Respiratory depression, pneumonia

Skin and Appendages: Angioedema, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, urticaria

Special Senses: Conjunctivitis, hearing impairment

Read the Cambia (diclofenac potassium for oral solution) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

DRUG INTERACTIONS

See Table 1 for clinically significant drug interactions with diclofenac.

Table 1: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with diclofenac

Drugs That Interfere with Hemostasis
Clinical Impact:
  • Diclofenac and anticoagulants such as warfarin have a synergistic effect on bleeding. The concomitant use of diclofenac and anticoagulants have an increased risk of serious bleeding compared to the use of either drug alone.
  • Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Case-control and cohort epidemiological studies showed that concomitant use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and an NSAID may potentiate the risk of bleeding more than an NSAID alone.
Intervention: Monitor patients with concomitant use of CAMBIA with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for signs of bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Aspirin
Clinical Impact: Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Intervention: Concomitant use of CAMBIA and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Beta-blockers
Clinical Impact:
  • NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or beta-blockers (including propranolol).
  • In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or have renal impairment, co-administration of an NSAID with ACE inhibitors or ARBs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
Intervention:
  • During concomitant use of CAMBIA and ACE-inhibitors, ARBs, or beta-blockers, monitor blood pressure to ensure that the desired blood pressure is obtained.
  • During concomitant use of CAMBIA and ACE-inhibitors or ARBs in patients who are elderly, volume-depleted, or have impaired renal function, monitor for signs of worsening renal function [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Diuretics
Clinical Impact: Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.
Intervention: During concomitant use of CAMBIA with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Digoxin
Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of diclofenac with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin.
Intervention: During concomitant use of CAMBIA and digoxin, monitor serum digoxin levels.
Lithium
Clinical Impact: NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.
Intervention: During concomitant use of CAMBIA and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity.
Methotrexate
Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction).
Intervention: During concomitant use of CAMBIA and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity.
Cyclosporine
Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of CAMBIA and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity.
Intervention: During concomitant use of CAMBIA and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.
NSAIDs and Salicylates
Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of diclofenac with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy [seeWARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Intervention: The concomitant use of diclofenac with other NSAIDs or salicylates is not recommended.
Pemetrexed
Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of CAMBIA and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexed-associated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information).
Intervention: During concomitant use of NSAIDs and pemetrexed, in patients with renal impairment whose creatinine clearance ranges from 45 to 79 mL/min, monitor for myelosuppression, renal and GI toxicity. NSAIDs with short elimination half-lives (e.g., diclofenac, indomethacin) should be avoided for a period of two days before, the day of, and two days following administration of pemetrexed. In the absence of data regarding potential interaction between pemetrexed and NSAIDs with longer half-lives (e.g., meloxicam, nabumetone), patients taking these NSAIDs should interrupt dosing for at least five days before, the day of, and two days following pemetrexed administration.
Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 2C9
Clinical Impact: Diclofenac is metabolized predominantly by Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9. Coadministration of medications that inhibit CYP2C9 may affect the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]
Intervention: During concomitant use of CAMBIA and drugs that inhibit CYP2C9, an increase in the duration between CAMBIA doses for subsequent migraine attacks may be necessary.

Read the Cambia Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Last reviewed on RxList: 5/23/2016

Side Effects
Interactions

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