"Researchers may have uncovered a mechanism behind nitrate-based triggers in migraine. They found that compared with people who don't experience migraines, those who do have significantly more nitrate, nitrite, and nitric oxide reductase genes in "...
The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- GI Bleeding, Ulceration and Perforation [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hepatotoxicity [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hypertension [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Heart Failure and Edema [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Anaphylactic Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Serious Skin Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hematologic Toxicity [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The safety of a single dose of CAMBIA was evaluated in 2 placebo-controlled trials with a total of 634 migraine patients treated with CAMBIA for a single migraine headache. Following treatment with diclofenac potassium (either CAMBIA or diclofenac potassium immediate-release tablets [as a control]), 5 subjects (0.8%) withdrew from the studies; following placebo exposure, 1 subject (0.2%) withdrew. The most common adverse reactions (i.e., that occurred in 1% or more of CAMBIA-treated patients) and more frequent with CAMBIA than with placebo were nausea and dizziness (see Table 1).
Table 1: Adverse Reactions With Incidence > 1% and
Greater Than Placebo in Studies 1 and 2 Combined
The most common adverse events resulting in discontinuation of patients following CAMBIA dosing in controlled clinical trials were urticaria (0.2%) and flushing (0.2%). No withdrawals were due to a serious reaction.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of diclofenac or other NSAIDs. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Adverse Reactions Reported With Diclofenac And Other NSAIDs
In patients taking diclofenac or other NSAIDs, the most frequently reported adverse reactions occurring in approximately 1%-10% of patients are: GI reactions (including abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, gross bleeding/perforation, heartburn, nausea, GI ulcers [gastric/duodenal], and vomiting), abnormal renal function, anemia, dizziness, edema, elevated liver enzymes, headaches, increased bleeding time, pruritus, rashes, and tinnitus.
Additional Adverse Reactions Reported In Patients Taking Nsaids Include Occasionally
Body as a Whole: Fever, infection, sepsis
Metabolic and Nutritional: Weight changes
Special Senses: Blurred vision
Other adverse reactions in patients taking NSAIDs, which occur rarely, are:
Body as a Whole: Anaphylactic reactions, appetite changes, death
Metabolic and Nutritional: Hyperglycemia
Nervous System: Convulsions, coma, hallucinations, meningitis
Special Senses: Conjunctivitis, hearing impairmentt
Read the Cambia (diclofenac potassium for oral solution) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
See Table 2 for clinically significant drug interactions with diclofenac.
Table 2: Clinically
Significant Drug Interactions with diclofenac
|Drugs That Interfere with Hemostasis|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients with concomitant use of CAMBIA with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for signs of bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]|
|Clinical Impact:||Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].|
|Intervention:||Concomitant use of CAMBIA and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].|
|ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Beta-blockers|
|Clinical Impact:||Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of CAMBIA with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of diclofenac with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of CAMBIA and digoxin, monitor serum digoxin levels.|
|Clinical Impact:||NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of CAMBIA and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction).|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of CAMBIA and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of CAMBIA and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of CAMBIA and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.|
|NSAIDs and Salicylates|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of diclofenac with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].|
|Intervention:||The concomitant use of diclofenac with other NSAIDs or salicylates is not recommended.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of CAMBIA and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexed-associated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information).|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of NSAIDs and pemetrexed, in patients with renal impairment whose creatinine clearance ranges from 45 to 79 mL/min, monitor for myelosuppression, renal and GI toxicity. NSAIDs with short elimination half-lives (e.g., diclofenac, indomethacin) should be avoided for a period of two days before, the day of, and two days following administration of pemetrexed. In the absence of data regarding potential interaction between pemetrexed and NSAIDs with longer half-lives (e.g., meloxicam, nabumetone), patients taking these NSAIDs should interrupt dosing for at least five days before, the day of, and two days following pemetrexed administration.|
|Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 2C9|
|Clinical Impact:||Diclofenac is metabolized predominantly by Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9. Coadministration of medications that inhibit CYP2C9 may affect the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of CAMBIA and drugs that inhibit CYP2C9, an increase in the duration between CAMBIA doses for subsequent migraine attacks may be necessary.|
Read the Cambia Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/3/2017
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