"The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is highly effective for annual colorectal cancer screening programs for average-risk patients, according to results of a study published online January 26 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.
Diarrhea and Cholinergic Reactions
Early diarrhea (occurring during or shortly after infusion of CAMPTOSAR) is usually transient and infrequently severe. It may be accompanied by cholinergic symptoms of rhinitis, increased salivation, miosis, lacrimation, diaphoresis, flushing, and intestinal hyperperistalsis that can cause abdominal cramping. Bradycardia may also occur. Early diarrhea and other cholinergic symptoms may be prevented or treated. Consider prophylactic or therapeutic administration of 0.25 mg to 1 mg of intravenous or subcutaneous atropine (unless clinically contraindicated). These symptoms are expected to occur more frequently with higher irinotecan doses.
Late diarrhea (generally occurring more than 24 hours after administration of CAMPTOSAR) can be life threatening since it may be prolonged and may lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, or sepsis. Grade 3-4 late diarrhea occurred in 23-31% of patients receiving weekly dosing. In the clinical studies, the median time to the onset of late diarrhea was 5 days with 3-week dosing and 11 days with weekly dosing. Late diarrhea can be complicated by colitis, ulceration, bleeding, ileus, obstruction, and infection. Cases of megacolon and intestinal perforation have been reported. Patients should have loperamide readily available to begin treatment for late diarrhea. Begin loperamide at the first episode of poorly formed or loose stools or the earliest onset of bowel movements more frequent than normal. One dosage regimen for loperamide is 4 mg at the first onset of late diarrhea and then 2 mg every 2 hours until the patient is diarrhea-free for at least 12 hours. Loperamide is not recommended to be used for more than 48 consecutive hours at these doses, because of the risk of paralytic ileus. During the night, the patient may take 4 mg of loperamide every 4 hours. Monitor and replace fluid and electrolytes. Use antibiotic support for ileus, fever, or severe neutropenia. Subsequent weekly chemotherapy treatments should be delayed in patients until return of pretreatment bowel function for at least 24 hours without anti-diarrhea medication. Patients must not be treated with irinotecan until resolution of the bowel obstruction. If grade 2, 3, or 4 late diarrhea recurs, subsequent doses of CAMPTOSAR should be decreased [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Avoid diuretics or laxatives in patients with diarrhea.
Deaths due to sepsis following severe neutropenia have been reported in patients treated with CAMPTOSAR. In the clinical studies evaluating the weekly dosage schedule, neutropenic fever (concurrent NCI grade 4 neutropenia and fever of grade 2 or greater) occurred in 3% of the patients; 6% of patients received G-CSF for the treatment of neutropenia. Manage febrile neutropenia promptly with antibiotic support. Hold CAMPTOSAR if neutropenic fever occurs or if the absolute neutrophil count drops < 1000/mm³. After recovery to an absolute neutrophil count ≥ 1000/mm³, subsequent doses of CAMPTOSAR should be reduced [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
When evaluated in the trials of weekly administration, the frequency of grade 3 and 4 neutropenia was higher in patients who received previous pelvic/abdominal irradiation than in those who had not received such irradiation (48% [13/27] versus 24% [67/277]; p=0.04). Patients who have previously received pelvic/abdominal irradiation are at increased risk of severe myelosuppression following the administration of CAMPTOSAR. Based on sparse available data, the concurrent administration of CAMPTOSAR with irradiation is not recommended.
Patients with baseline serum total bilirubin levels of 1.0 mg/dL or more also had a greater likelihood of experiencing first-cycle grade 3 or 4 neutropenia than those with bilirubin levels that were less than 1.0 mg/dL (50% [19/38] versus 18% [47/266]; p < 0.001). Patients with deficient glucuronidation of bilirubin, such as those with Gilbert's syndrome, may be at greater risk of myelosuppression when receiving therapy with CAMPTOSAR.
Patients With Reduced UGT1A1 Activity
Individuals who are homozygous for the UGT1A1*28 allele (UGT1A1 7/7 genotype) are at increased risk for neutropenia following initiation of CAMPTOSAR treatment.
In a study of 66 patients who received single-agent CAMPTOSAR (350 mg/m² once-every3-weeks), the incidence of grade 4 neutropenia in patients homozygous for the UGT1A1*28 allele was 50%, and in patients heterozygous for this allele (UGT1A1 6/7 genotype) the incidence was 12.5%. No grade 4 neutropenia was observed in patients homozygous for the wild-type allele (UGT1A1 6/6 genotype).
In a prospective study (n=250) to investigate the role of UGT1A1*28 polymorphism in the development of toxicity in patients treated with CAMPTOSAR (180 mg/m²) in combination with infusional 5-FU/LV, the incidence of grade 4 neutropenia in patients homozygous for the UGT1A1*28 allele was 4.5%, and in patients heterozygous for this allele the incidence was 5.3%. Grade 4 neutropenia was observed in 1.8% of patients homozygous for the wild-type allele.
In another study in which 109 patients were treated with CAMPTOSAR (100-125 mg/m²) in combination with bolus 5-FU/LV, the incidence of grade 4 neutropenia in patients homozygous for the UGT1A1*28 allele was 18.2%, and in patients heterozygous for this allele the incidence was 11.1%. Grade 4 neutropenia was observed in 6.8% of patients homozygous for the wild-type allele.
When administered in combination with other agents or as a single-agent, a reduction in the starting dose by at least one level of CAMPTOSAR should be considered for patients known to be homozygous for the UGT1A1*28 allele. However, the precise dose reduction in this patient population is not known and subsequent dose modifications should be considered based on individual patient tolerance to treatment [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
A laboratory test is available to determine the UGT1A1 status of patients. Testing can detect the UGT1A1 6/6, 6/7 and 7/7 genotypes.
Hypersensitivity reactions including severe anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions have been observed. Discontinue CAMPTOSAR if anaphylactic reaction occurs.
Renal Impairment/Renal Failure
Renal impairment and acute renal failure have been identified, usually in patients who became volume depleted from severe vomiting and/or diarrhea.
Interstitial Pulmonary Disease (IPD)-like events, including fatalities, have occurred in patients receiving irinotecan (in combination and as monotherapy). Risk factors include preexisting lung disease, use of pneumotoxic drugs, radiation therapy, and colony stimulating factors. Patients with risk factors should be closely monitored for respiratory symptoms before and during irinotecan therapy. In Japanese studies, a reticulonodular pattern on chest x-ray was observed in a small percentage of patients. New or progressive, dyspnea, cough, and fever should prompt interruption of chemotherapy, pending diagnostic evaluation. If IPD is diagnosed, irinotecan and other chemotherapy should be discontinued and appropriate treatment instituted as needed [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Toxicity of the 5 Day Regimen
Outside of a well-designed clinical study, CAMPTOSAR Injection should not be used in combination with a regimen of 5-FU/LV administered for 4-5 consecutive days every 4 weeks because of reports of increased toxicity, including toxic deaths. CAMPTOSAR should be used as recommended in Table 2 [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Increased Toxicity in Patients with Performance Status 2
In patients receiving either irinotecan/5-FU/LV or 5-FU/LV in the clinical trials, higher rates of hospitalization, neutropenic fever, thromboembolism, first-cycle treatment discontinuation, and early deaths were observed in patients with a baseline performance status of 2 than in patients with a baseline performance status of 0 or 1.
CAMPTOSAR can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Irinotecan was embryotoxic in rats and rabbits at doses significantly lower than those administered to humans on a mg/m² basis. In rats, at exposures approximately 0.2 times those achieved in humans at the 125 mg/m² dose, irinotecan was embryotoxic and resulted in decreased learning ability and female fetal body weight in surviving pups; the drug was teratogenic at lower exposures (approximately 0.025 times the AUC in humans at the 125 mg/m² dose).There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of irinotecan in pregnant women. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while receiving treatment with CAMPTOSAR.
Patients with Hepatic Impairment
The use of CAMPTOSAR in patients with significant hepatic impairment has not been established. In clinical trials of either dosing schedule, irinotecan was not administered to patients with serum bilirubin > 2.0 mg/dL, or transaminase > 3 times the upper limit of normal if no liver metastasis, or transaminase > 5 times the upper limit of normal with liver metastasis. In clinical trials of the weekly dosage schedule, patients with modestly elevated baseline serum total bilirubin levels (1.0 to 2.0 mg/dL) had a significantly greater likelihood of experiencing first-cycle, grade 3 or 4 neutropenia than those with bilirubin levels that were less than 1.0 mg/dL (50% [19/38] versus 18% [47/226]; p < 0.001) [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Use In Specific Populations and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term carcinogenicity studies with irinotecan were not conducted. Rats were, however, administered intravenous doses of 2 mg/kg or 25 mg/kg irinotecan once per week for 13 weeks (in separate studies, the 25 mg/kg dose produced an irinotecan Cmax and AUC that were about 7.0 times and 1.3 times the respective values in patients administered 125 mg/m² weekly) and were then allowed to recover for 91 weeks. Under these conditions, there was a significant linear trend with dose for the incidence of combined uterine horn endometrial stromal polyps and endometrial stromal sarcomas. Irinotecan was clastogenic both in vitro (chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells) and in vivo (micronucleus test in mice). Neither irinotecan nor its active metabolite SN-38 was mutagenic in the in vitro Ames assay.
No significant adverse effects on fertility and general reproductive performance were observed after intravenous administration of irinotecan in doses of up to 6 mg/kg/day to rats and rabbits; however, atrophy of male reproductive organs was observed after multiple daily irinotecan doses both in rodents at 20 mg/kg and in dogs at 0.4 mg/kg. In separate studies in rodents, this dose produced an irinotecan Cmax and AUC about 5 and 1 times, respectively, of the corresponding values in patients administered 125 mg/m² weekly. In dogs this dose produced an irinotecan Cmax and AUC about one-half and 1/15th, respectively, of the corresponding values in patients administered 125 mg/m² weekly.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category D [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
CAMPTOSAR can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Radioactivity related to 14C-irinotecan crosses the placenta of rats following intravenous administration of 10 mg/kg (which in separate studies produced an irinotecan Cmax and AUC about 3 and 0.5 times, respectively, the corresponding values in patients administered 125 mg/m²). Intravenous administration of irinotecan 6 mg/kg/day to rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis resulted in increased post-implantation loss and decreased numbers of live fetuses. In separate studies in rats, this dose produced an irinotecan Cmax and AUC of about 2 and 0.2 times, respectively, the corresponding values in patients administered 125 mg/m². In rabbits, the embryotoxic dose was about one-half the recommended human weekly starting dose on a mg/m² basis. Irinotecan was teratogenic in rats at doses greater than 1.2 mg/kg/day and in rabbits at 6.0 mg/kg/day. In separate studies in rats, this dose produced an irinotecan Cmax and AUC about 2/3 and 1/40th, respectively, of the corresponding values in patients administered 125 mg/m². In rabbits, the teratogenic dose was about one-half the recommended human weekly starting dose on a mg/m² basis. Teratogenic effects included a variety of external, visceral, and skeletal abnormalities. Irinotecan administered to rat dams for the period following organogenesis through weaning at doses of 6 mg/kg/day caused decreased learning ability and decreased female body weights in the offspring. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of irinotecan in pregnant women. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while receiving treatment with CAMPTOSAR.
Radioactivity appeared in rat milk within 5 minutes of intravenous administration of radiolabeled irinotecan and was concentrated up to 65-fold at 4 hours after administration relative to plasma concentrations. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from CAMPTOSAR, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
The effectiveness of irinotecan in pediatric patients has not been established. Results from two open-label, single arm studies were evaluated. One hundred and seventy children with refractory solid tumors were enrolled in one phase 2 trial in which 50 mg/ m² of irinotecan was infused for 5 consecutive days every 3 weeks. Grade 3-4 neutropenia was experienced by 54 (31.8%) patients. Neutropenia was complicated by fever in 15 (8.8%) patients. Grade 3-4 diarrhea was observed in 35 (20.6%) patients. This adverse event profile was comparable to that observed in adults. In the second phase 2 trial of 21 children with previously untreated rhabdomyosarcoma, 20 mg/m² of irinotecan was infused for 5 consecutive days on weeks 0, 1, 3 and 4. This single agent therapy was followed by multimodal therapy. Accrual to the single agent irinotecan phase was halted due to the high rate (28.6%) of progressive disease and the early deaths (14%). The adverse event profile was different in this study from that observed in adults; the most significant grade 3 or 4 adverse events were dehydration experienced by 6 patients (28.6%) associated with severe hypokalemia in 5 patients (23.8%) and hyponatremia in 3 patients (14.3%); in addition Grade 3-4 infection was reported in 5 patients (23.8%) (across all courses of therapy and irrespective of causal relationship).
Pharmacokinetic parameters for irinotecan and SN-38 were determined in 2 pediatric solid-tumor trials at dose levels of 50 mg/m² (60-min infusion, n=48) and 125 mg/m² (90-min infusion, n=6). Irinotecan clearance (mean ± S.D.) was 17.3 ± 6.7 L/h/m² for the 50mg/m² dose and 16.2 ± 4.6 L/h/m² for the 125 mg/m² dose, which is comparable to that in adults. Dose-normalized SN-38 AUC values were comparable between adults and children. Minimal accumulation of irinotecan and SN-38 was observed in children on daily dosing regimens [daily x 5 every 3 weeks or (daily x 5) x 2 weeks every 3 weeks].
Patients greater than 65 years of age should be closely monitored because of a greater risk of early and late diarrhea in this population [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and ADVERSE REACTIONS]. The starting dose of CAMPTOSAR in patients 70 years and older for the once-every-3-week-dosage schedule should be 300 mg/m² [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
The frequency of grade 3 and 4 late diarrhea by age was significantly greater in patients ≥ 65 years than in patients < 65 years (40% [53/133] versus 23% [40/171]; p=0.002). In another study of 183 patients treated on the weekly schedule, the frequency of grade 3 or 4 late diarrhea in patients ≥ 65 years of age was 28.6% [26/91] and in patients < 65 years of age was 23.9% [22/92].
The influence of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan has not been evaluated. Therefore, use caution in patients with impaired renal function. Irinotecan is not recommended for use in patients on dialysis.
Irinotecan clearance is diminished in patients with hepatic impairment while exposure to the active metabolite SN-38 is increased relative to that in patients with normal hepatic function. The magnitude of these effects is proportional to the degree of liver impairment as measured by elevations in total bilirubin and transaminase concentrations. Therefore, use caution in patients with hepatic impairment. The tolerability of irinotecan in patients with hepatic dysfunction (bilirubin greater than 2 mg/dl) has not been assessed sufficiently, and no recommendations for dosing can be made [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/9/2012
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