Steven B. Horne, DDS
Dr. Steve Horne began his career at Brigham Young University obtaining his BA in English. He earned his Doctorate of Dental Surgery in 2007 from the University of Southern California where his pursuit for academic excellence landed him on the Dean's List. He was recognized for his superior clinical skills and invited to help teach other dental students in courses on restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, and tooth anatomy. During dental school, he provided dental care for underserved populations of Los Angeles and Orange County, Mexico, and Costa Rica with AYUDA. Following dental school, Dr. Horne entered active duty with the U.S. Army and practiced dentistry at Fort Knox, Kentucky, for four years. During this time, he was deployed to Baghdad, Iraq, and received multiple Army Achievement Medals, the Army Commendation Medal, and served as Company Commander. Dr. Horne currently practices full time at Torrey Pines Dental Arts in La Jolla, California, as a general dentist. Dr. Horne is a member of the American Dental Association, the California Dental Association, and the Academy of General Dentistry. Dr. Horne is married to his wife, Christy, and they have a chocolate Labrador named Roscoe.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- What are cavities?
- How does a cavity form?
- What risk factors contribute to tooth decay?
- What are the signs and symptoms of cavities?
- What is the treatment for cavities?
- Treatment during pregnancy
- Dental (Oral) Health FAQs
- Find a local Doctor in your town
Treatment during pregnancy
Hormonal and bacterial quantity changes during pregnancy put pregnant women at greater risk for gingivitis and periodontal disease. Therefore, it is very important that pregnant women continue to get regular dental cleanings during pregnancy. Pregnant women have generally been counseled to avoid elective dental treatment during pregnancy unless they are experiencing an emergency like pain or infection. In this case, the second trimester is the best time for treatment to keep the expectant mother as comfortable as possible. Local anesthetics, and other materials used during dental treatment don't increase risk to the fetus, but untreated oral disease has been shown to lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. If X-rays are necessary, a protective apron will be placed over the woman's stomach and thyroid. If antibiotics are necessary, tetracycline should be avoided because it will cause staining in the baby's developing teeth.
"For the dental patient: oral health during pregnancy." Journal of the American Dental Association 142.5 (2011): 574.
"Tooth Decay." American Dental Association. <http://www.ada.org/3031.aspx?currentTab=1#jada>.
Brambilla, Eugenio, et al. "Caries prevention during pregnancy: results of a 30-month study." Journal of the American Dental Association 129.7 (1998): 871-877.
Diniz, Michele B., et al. "The performance of conventional and fluorescence-based methods for occlusal caries detection: an in vivo study with histologic validation." Journal of the American Dental Association 143.4 (2012): 339-350.
Michalowicz, Bryan S., et al. "Examining the safety of dental treatment in pregnant women." Journal of the American Dental Association 139.6 (2008): 685-695.
Zero, Domenick T., et al. "The biology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental caries: scientific advances in the United States." Journal of the American Dental Association 140.Suppl 1 (2009): 25S-34S.
Viewers share their comments
- Submit »
- Submit »
WebMD Oral Health
Get tips for a healthy mouth.