"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration yesterday approved Ruconest, the first recombinant C1-Esterase Inhibitor product for the treatment of acute attacks in adult and adolescent patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE).
Mechanism of Action
Aztreonam is an antibacterial drug.
Sputum aztreonam concentrations exhibited considerable variability between patients receiving CAYSTON (75 mg) in clinical trials. The mean sputum concentration 10 minutes following the first dose of CAYSTON (n = 195 patients with CF) was 726 mcg/g. Mean sputum concentrations of aztreonam in patients receiving CAYSTON 3 times a day for 28 days were 984 mcg/g, 793 mcg/g, and 715 mcg/g 10 minutes after dose administration on Days 0, 14, and 28, respectively, indicating no accumulation of aztreonam in sputum.
Plasma aztreonam concentrations exhibited considerable variability between patients receiving CAYSTON (75 mg) in the clinical trials. The mean plasma concentration one hour following the first dose of CAYSTON (at approximately the peak plasma concentration) was 0.59 mcg/mL. Mean peak plasma concentrations in patients receiving CAYSTON 3 times a day for 28 days were 0.55 mcg/mL, 0.67 mcg/mL, and 0.65 mcg/mL on Days 0, 14, and 28, respectively, indicating no systemic accumulation of aztreonam. In contrast, the serum concentration of aztreonam following administration of aztreonam for injection (500 mg) is approximately 54 mcg/mL.
Evaluation of plasma and urine aztreonam concentrations following administration of CAYSTON indicates low systemic absorption of aztreonam. Approximately 10% of the total CAYSTON dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug, as compared to 60–65% following intravenous administration of aztreonam for injection.
The protein binding of aztreonam in serum is approximately 56% and is independent of dose.
Following intramuscular administration of aztreonam for injection 500 mg every 8 hours for 7 days, approximately 6% of the dose was excreted as a microbiologically inactive open β-lactam ring hydrolysis product in an 8-hour urine collection on the last day of multiple dosing.
The elimination half-life of aztreonam from plasma is approximately 2.1 hours following administration of CAYSTON to adult patients with CF, similar to what has been reported for aztreonam for injection. Approximately 10% of the total CAYSTON dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug. Systemically absorbed aztreonam is eliminated about equally by active tubular secretion and glomerular filtration. Following administration of a single intravenous dose of radiolabeled aztreonam for injection, about 12% of the dose was recovered in the feces.
Mechanism of Action
Aztreonam exhibits activity in vitro against Gram-negative aerobic pathogens including P. aeruginosa. Aztreonam binds to penicillin-binding proteins of susceptible bacteria, which leads to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis and death of the cell. Aztreonam activity is not decreased in the presence of CF lung secretions.
A single sputum sample from a patient with CF may contain multiple morphotypes of P. aeruginosa and each morphotype may have a different level of in vitro susceptibility to aztreonam. There are no in vitro susceptibility test interpretive criteria for isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from the sputum of CF patients.1
Development of Resistance
No changes in the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to aztreonam were observed following a 28-day course of CAYSTON in the placebo-controlled trials.
No cross-resistance to other classes of antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, quinolones, and beta-lactams, was observed following a 28-day course of CAYSTON in the Phase 3 placebo-controlled trials or in an open-label follow-on trial of up to nine 28-day courses of 75 mg CAYSTON 3 times a day.
No trends in the treatment-emergent isolation of other bacterial respiratory pathogens (Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Staphylococcus aureus) were observed in clinical trials. There was a slight increase in the isolation of Candida spp. following up to nine 28-day courses of CAYSTON therapy.
CAYSTON was evaluated over a period of 28 days of treatment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial that enrolled patients with CF and P. aeruginosa. This trial was designed to evaluate improvement in respiratory symptoms. Patients 7 years of age and older and with FEV1 of 25% to 75% predicted were enrolled. All patients received CAYSTON or placebo on an outpatient basis administered with the Altera Nebulizer System. All patients were required to take a dose of an inhaled bronchodilator (beta-agonist) prior to taking a dose of CAYSTON or placebo. Patients were receiving standard care for CF, including drugs for obstructive airway diseases.
The trial enrolled 164 patients with CF and P. aeruginosa. The mean age was 30 years, and the mean baseline FEV1 % predicted was 55%; 43% were females and 96% were Caucasian. These patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either CAYSTON (75 mg) or volume-matched placebo administered by inhalation 3 times a day for 28 days. Patients were required to have been off antibiotics for at least 28 days before treatment with study drug. The primary efficacy endpoint was improvement in respiratory symptoms on the last day of treatment with CAYSTON or placebo. Respiratory symptoms were also assessed two weeks after the completion of treatment with CAYSTON or placebo. Changes in respiratory symptoms were assessed using a questionnaire that asks patients to report on symptoms like cough, wheezing, and sputum production.
Improvement in respiratory symptoms was noted for CAYSTON-treated patients relative to placebo-treated patients on the last day of drug treatment. Statistically significant improvements were seen in both adult and pediatric patients, but were substantially smaller in adult patients. Two weeks after completion of treatment, a difference in respiratory symptoms between treatment groups was still present, though the difference was smaller.
Pulmonary function, as measured by FEV1 (L), increased from baseline in patients treated with CAYSTON (see Figure 1). The treatment difference at Day 28 between CAYSTON-treated and placebo-treated patients for percent change in FEV1 (L) was statistically significant at 10% (95% CI: 6%, 14%). Improvements in FEV1 were comparable between adult and pediatric patients. Two weeks after completion of drug treatment, the difference in FEV1 between CAYSTON and placebo groups had decreased to 6% (95% CI: 2%, 9%).
Figure 1: Adjusted Mean Percent Change in FEV1
from Baseline to Study End (Days 0-42).
1. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically—Eighth Edition; Approved Standard. CLSI Document M7-A8. CLSI, Wayne, PA 19087. January, 2009.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/10/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Cayston Information
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