"Rotavirus can cause severe diarrhea in young children. They can get very dehydrated and need to be hospitalized. Rotavirus spreads easily. Parents can protect their children by making sure they are vaccinated with rotavirus vaccine.
Mechanism Of Action
Cefazolin is an antibacterial drug [see Microbiology].
The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship for cefazolin has not been evaluated in patients.
After intramuscular administration of cefazolin to normal volunteers, the mean serum concentrations were 37 mcg/mL at 1 hour and 3 mcg/mL at 8 hours following a 500 mg dose, and 64 mcg/mL at 1 hour and 7 mcg/mL at 8 hours following a 1 gram dose.
Studies have shown that following intravenous administration of cefazolin to normal volunteers, mean serum concentrations peaked at approximately 185 mcg/mL and were approximately 4 mcg/mL at 8 hours for a 1 gram dose.
The serum half-life for cefazolin is approximately 1.8 hours following IV administration and approximately 2 hours following IM administration.
In a study (using normal volunteers) of constant intravenous infusion with dosages of 3.5 mg/kg for 1 hour (approximately 250 mg) and 1.5 mg/kg the next 2 hours (approximately 100 mg), cefazolin produced a steady serum concentration at the third hour of approximately 28 mcg/mL.
Studies in patients hospitalized with infections indicate that cefazolin for injection produces mean peak serum concentrations approximately equivalent to those seen in normal volunteers.
Bile concentrations in patients without obstructive biliary disease can reach or exceed serum concentrations by up to five times; however, in patients with obstructive biliary disease, bile concentrations of cefazolin are considerably lower than serum concentrations ( < 1 mcg/mL).
In synovial fluid, the cefazolin concentration becomes comparable to that reached in serum at about 4 hours after drug administration.
Studies of cord blood show prompt transfer of cefazolin across the placenta. Cefazolin is present in very low concentrations in the milk of nursing mothers.
Cefazolin is excreted unchanged in the urine. In the first 6 hours approximately 60% of the drug is excreted in the urine and this increases to 70% to 80% within 24 hours. Cefazolin achieves peak urine concentrations of approximately 2,400 mcg/mL and 4,000 mcg/mL respectively following 500 mg and 1 gram intramuscular doses.
In patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (2 L/hr.), cefazolin produced mean serum concentrations of approximately 10 and 30 mcg/mL after 24 hours' instillation of a dialyzing solution containing 50 mg/L and 150 mg/L, respectively. Mean peak levels were 29 mcg/mL (range 13 to 44 mcg/mL) with 50 mg/L (3 patients), and 72 mcg/mL (range 26 to 142 mcg/mL) with 150 mg/L (6 patients). Intraperitoneal administration of cefazolin is usually well tolerated.
Mechanism of Action
Cefazolin is a bactericidal agent that acts by inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis.
Mechanism of Resistance
Predominant mechanisms of bacterial resistance to cephalosporins include the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and enzymatic hydrolysis.
Lists of Microorganisms
Cefazolin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the Indications and Usage (1) section.
Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae
Methicillin-resistant staphylococci are uniformly resistant to cefazolin.
Most isolates of indole positive Proteus (Proteus vulgaris), Enterobacter spp., Morganella morganii, Providencia rettgeri, Serratia spp., and Pseudomonas spp. are resistant to cefazolin.
Susceptibility Test Methods
When available, the clinical microbiology laboratory should provide the results of in vitro susceptibility test results for antimicrobial drug products used in resident hospitals to the physician as periodic reports that describe the susceptibility profile of nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. These reports should aid the physician in selecting an antibacterial drug product for treatment.
Quantitative methods are used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standard test1,2 (broth and/or agar). The MIC values obtained should be interpreted according to criteria as provided in Table 4.
Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The zone size provides an estimate of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The zone size should be interpreted using a standard test method2,3. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 30 mcg cefazolin to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to cefazolin. The disk diffusion interpretive criteria are provided in Table 4.
Table 4: Susceptibility Test Interpretive Criteria for
|Pathogen||Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (mcg/mL)||Disk Diffusion Zone Diameter (mm)b|
|Escherichia coli Proteus mirabilis||≤ 1||2||≥ 4||-||-||-|
|Staphylococcus aureus||≤ 8||16||≥ 32||≥ 18||15 to 17||≤ 14|
|Abbreviations: S= susceptible, I= intermediate, R=
a Interpretive criteria are based on 1 g every 8 hr
b The cefazolin disk should not be used for determining susceptibility to other cephalosporins
NOTE: S. pyogenes and S. agalactiae that have a penicillin MIC of ≤ 0.12 mcg/mL, or disk diffusion zone diameters of ≥ 24 mm with a 10 mcg penicillin disk, may be interpreted as susceptible to cefazolin. Non-meningitis isolates of S. pneumoniae that have a penicillin MIC of ≤ 0.06 mcg/mL, may be interpreted as susceptible to cefazolin.
A report of Susceptible indicates that the antimicrobial is likely to inhibit growth of the pathogen if the antimicrobial compound reaches the concentrations at the infection site necessary to inhibit growth of the pathogen. A report of Intermediate indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug product is physiologically concentrated or in situations where a high dosage of the drug product can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone that prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of Resistant indicates that the antimicrobial is not likely to inhibit growth of the pathogen if the antimicrobial compound reaches the concentrations usually achievable at the infection site; other therapy should be selected.
Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory controls to monitor and ensure the accuracy and precision of supplies and reagents used in the assay, and the techniques of the individual performing the test1,2,3. Standard cefazolin powder should provide the following MIC values noted in Table 5. For the diffusion technique using the 30 mcg disk, the criteria in Table 5 should be achieved.
Table 5: Acceptable Quality Control Ranges for
|QC Isolate||Minimum Inhibitory Concentration mcg/mL||Disk Diffusion Zone Diameters (mm)|
|E. coli ATCC® 25922||1 to 4||21 to 27|
|S. aureus ATCC® 29213||0.25 to 1||-|
|S. aureus ATCC® 25923||-||29 to 35|
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/29/2016
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Cefazolin Injection Information
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