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BEFORE THERAPYWITH CEFIZOX (ceftizoxime) IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO CEFJZOX, OTHER CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS, OR OTHER DRUGS. IF THIS PRODUCT IS TO BE GIVEN TO PENICILLIN-SENSITIVE PATIENTS, CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED BECAUSE CROSS HYPERSENSITIVITY AMONG BETA- LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS HAS BEEN CLEARLY DOCUMENTED AND MAY OCCUR IN UP TO 10% OF PATIENTS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN ALLERGY. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION TO CEFIZOX (ceftizoxime) OCCURS, DISCONTINUE THE DRUG. SERIOUS ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES, INCLUDING OXYGEN, IV FLUIDS, IV ANTIHISTA MINES, CORTICOSTEROIDS, PRESSOR AMINES, AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, AS CLINICALLY INDICATED.
Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including ceftizoxime, and may range in severity from mild to life threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to theadministration of antibacterial agents.
Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. Studies indicate that atoxin produced by Clostridium difficile is a primary cause of † antibiotic-associated † colitis.
After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, appropriate therapeutic measures should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuation alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation, and treatment with an antibacterial drug clinically effective against Clostridium difficile colitis.
As with all broad-spectrum antibiotics, Cefizox (ceftizoxime for injection, USP) should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.
Although Cefizox (ceftizoxime) has not been shown to produce an alteration in renal function, renal status should be evaluated, especially in seriously ill patients receiving
maximum dose therapy. As with any antibiotic, prolonged use may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Careful observation is essential; appropriate
measures should be taken if superinfection occurs.
Althoughthe occurrence has not been reported with Cefizox (ceftizoxime) , nephrotoxicity has been reported following concomitant administration of other cephalosporins and
Long-term studies in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of ceftizoxime have not been conducted.
In an in vitro bacterial cell assay (i.e., Ames test), there was no evidence of mutagenicity at ceftizoxime concentrations of 0.001-0.5 mcg/plate. Ceftizoxime did not produce increases in micronuclei in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test when given to animals at doses up to 7500 mg/kg, approximately six times greater than the maximum human daily dose on a mg/M 2 basis.
Ceftizoxime had no effect on fertility when administered subcutaneously to rats at daily doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, approximately two times the maximum human daily dose on a mg/M2 basis.
Ceftizoxime produced no histological changes in the sexual organs of male and female dogs when given intravenously for thirteen weeks at a dose of 1000 mg/kg/day, approximately five times greater than the maximum human daily dose on a mg/M2 basis.
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies performed in rats and rabbits have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to Cefizox (ceftizoxime) . There are, however, no adequate and wellcontrolled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human effects, this drug should be used
during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Labor and Delivery
Safety of Cefizox (ceftizoxime) use during labor and delivery has not been established.
Cefizox (ceftizoxime) is excreted in human milk in low concentrations. Caution should be exercised when Cefizox (ceftizoxime) is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients from birth to six months of age have not been established. In pediatric patients six months of age and older, treatment with Cefizox (ceftizoxime) has been associated with transient elevated levels of eosinophils, AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT), and CPK (creatine phosphokinase). The CPKelevation may be related to IM administration.
The potential for the toxic effect in pediatric patients from chemicalsthat may leachfrom the single-dose IV preparation in plastic has not been determined.
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Cefizox Information
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