"LONDON (Reuters) - Scientists in Germany have discovered a bacteria hiding out in peoples' noses that produces an antibiotic compound that can kill several dangerous pathogens, including the superbug MRSA.
The early-stage finding, rep"...
BEFORE THERAPY WITH CEFTRIAXONE FOR INJECTION AND DEXTROSE INJECTION IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS OR OTHER DRUGS. THIS PRODUCT SHOULD BE GIVEN CAUTIOUSLY TO PENICILLIN-SENSITIVE PATIENTS. ANTIBIOTICS SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED WITH CAUTION TO ANY PATIENT WHO HAS DEMONSTRATED SOME FORM OF ALLERGY, PARTICULARLY TO DRUGS. SERIOUS ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE THE USE OF SUBCUTANEOUS EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Ceftriaxone (ceftriaxone sodium and dextrose injection ) for Injection and Dextrose Injection, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Prescribing Ceftriaxone for Injection and Dextrose Injection in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Although transient elevations of BUN and serum creatinine have been observed, at the recommended dosages, the nephrotoxic potential of Ceftriaxone (ceftriaxone sodium and dextrose injection ) is similar to that of other cephalosporins.
Ceftriaxone is excreted via both biliary and renal excretion (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Therefore, patients with renal failure normally require no adjustment in dosage when usual doses of Ceftriaxone (ceftriaxone sodium and dextrose ) for Injection are administered, but concentrations of drug in the serum should be monitored periodically. If evidence of accumulation exists, dosage should be decreased accordingly.
Dosage adjustments should not be necessary in patients with hepatic dysfunction; however, in patients with both hepatic dysfunction and significant renal disease, Ceftriaxone for Injection and Dextrose Injection dosage should not exceed 2 g daily without close monitoring of serum concentrations.
Alterations in prothrombin times have occurred rarely in patients treated with Ceftriaxone (ceftriaxone sodium and dextrose) Injection. Patients with impaired vitamin K synthesis or low vitamin K stores (e.g., chronic hepatic disease and malnutrition) may require monitoring of prothrombin time during Ceftriaxone for Injection and Dextrose Injection (ceftriaxone (ceftriaxone sodium and dextrose injection ) sodium and dextrose injection ) treatment. Vitamin K administration (10 mg weekly) may be necessary if the prothrombin time is prolonged before or during therapy.
Prolonged use of Ceftriaxone for Injection and Dextrose Injection may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Careful observation of the patient is essential. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.
Ceftriaxone for Injection and Dextrose Injection should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, especially colitis.
There have been reports of sonographic abnormalities in the gallbladder of patients treated with Ceftriaxone (ceftriaxone sodium and dextrose) Injection; some of these patients also had symptoms of gallbladder disease.
These abnormalities appear on sonography as an echo without acoustical shadowing suggesting sludge or as an echo with acoustical shadowing which may be misinterpreted as gallstones. The chemical nature of the sonographically detected material has been determined to be predominantly a ceftriaxone (ceftriaxone sodium and dextrose) Injection -calcium salt. The condition appears to be transient and reversible upon discontinuation of Ceftriaxone (ceftriaxone sodium and dextrose) Injection and institution of conservative management. Therefore, Ceftriaxone (ceftriaxone sodium and dextrose) Injection should be discontinued in patients who develop signs and symptoms suggestive of gallbladder disease and/or the sonographic findings described above.
As with other dextrose-containing solutions, Ceftriaxone for Injection and Dextrose Injection should be prescribed with caution in patients with overt or known subclinical diabetes mellitus or carbohydrate intolerance for any reason.
If administration is controlled by a pumping device, care must be taken to discontinue pumping action before the container runs dry or air embolism may result.
Use only if solution is clear and container and seals are intact.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenesis: Considering the maximum duration of treatment and the class of the compound, carcinogenicity studies with Ceftriaxone (ceftriaxone sodium and dextrose) Injection in animals have not been performed. The maximum duration of animal toxicity studies was 6 months.
Mutagenesis: Genetic toxicology tests included the Ames test, a micronucleus test and a test for chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes cultured in w'frowith ceftriaxone showed no potential for mutagenic activity in these studies.
Impairment of Fertility: Ceftriaxone produced no impairment of fertility when given intravenously to rats at daily doses up to 586 mg/kg/day, approximately 20 times the recommended clinical dose of 2 g/day.
Pregnancy Category B. Reproductive studies have been performed in mice and rats at doses up to 20 times the usual human dose and have no evidence of embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity or teratogenicity. In primates, no embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was demonstrated at a dose approximately 3 times the human dose.
There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Nonteratogenic Effects: In rats, in the Segment I (fertility and general reproduction) and Segment III (perinatal and postnatal) studies with intravenously administered ceftriaxone, no adverse effects were noted on various reproductive parameters during gestation and lactation, including postnatal growth, functional behavior and reproductive ability of the offspring, at doses of 586 mg/kg/day or less.
Low concentrations of ceftriaxone are excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when Ceftriaxone is administered to a nursing woman.
Ceftriaxone in the DUPLEX® Container is designed to deliver a 1 g or 2 g dose of ceftriaxone. To prevent unintentional overdose, this product should not be used in pediatric patients who require less than the full adult dose of ceftriaxone .
Safety and effectiveness of Ceftriaxone in neonates, infants and pediatric patients have been established for the dosages described in the DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section. In vitro studies have shown that ceftriaxone, like some other cephalosporins, can displace bilirubin from serum albumin. Ceftriaxone should not be administered to hyperbilirubinemic neonates, especially prematures.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/3/2007
Additional Ceftriaxone Information
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