"Dec. 17, 2012 -- Milk is an important source of vitamin D and calcium in young children's diets. But drinking more than two glasses a day may lower how much iron is stored in their bodies, raising the risk for anemia, a new study suggests."...
BEFORE THERAPY WITH CEFZIL (cefprozil) IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO CEFZIL (cefprozil) , CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS, OR OTHER DRUGS. IF THIS PRODUCT IS TO BE GIVEN TO PENICILLIN-SENSITIVE PATIENTS, CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED BECAUSE CROSS-SENSITIVITY AMONG β-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS HAS BEEN CLEARLY DOCUMENTED AND MAY OCCUR IN UP TO 10% OF PATIENTS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN ALLERGY. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION TO CEFZIL (cefprozil) OCCURS, DISCONTINUE THE DRUG. SERIOUS ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES, INCLUDING OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS FLUIDS, INTRAVENOUS ANTIHISTAMINES, CORTICOSTEROIDS, PRESSOR AMINES, AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, AS CLINICALLY INDICATED.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including CEFZIL (cefprozil) , and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin-producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Prescribing CEFZIL (cefprozil) in the absence of proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
In patients with known or suspected renal impairment (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), careful clinical observation and appropriate laboratory studies should be done prior to and during therapy. The total daily dose of CEFZIL (cefprozil) should be reduced in these patients because high and/or prolonged plasma antibiotic concentrations can occur in such individuals from usual doses. Cephalosporins, including CEFZIL (cefprozil) , should be given with caution to patients receiving concurrent treatment with potent diuretics since these agents are suspected of adversely affecting renal function.
Prolonged use of CEFZIL (cefprozil) may result in the overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Careful observation of the patient is essential. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.
Cefprozil should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease particularly colitis.
Positive direct Coombs' tests have been reported during treatment with cephalosporin antibiotics.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility
Long term in vivo studies have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of cefprozil.
Cefprozil was not found to be mutagenic in either the Ames Salmonella or E. coli WP2 urvA reversion assays or the Chinese hamster ovary cell HGPRT forward gene mutation assay and it did not induce chromosomal abnormalities in Chinese hamster ovary cells or unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes in vitro. Chromosomal aberrations were not observed in bone marrow cells from rats dosed orally with over 30 times the highest recommended human dose based upon mg/m2.
Impairment of fertility was not observed in male or female rats given oral doses of cefprozil up to 18.5 times the highest recommended human dose based upon mg/m2.
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies have been performed in rabbits, mice, and rats using oral doses of cefprozil of 0.8, 8.5, and 18.5 times the maximum daily human dose (1000 mg) based upon mg/m2, and have revealed no harm to the fetus. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Labor and Delivery
Cefprozil has not been studied for use during labor and delivery. Treatment should only be given if clearly needed.
Small amounts of cefprozil ( < 0.3% of dose) have been detected in human milk following administration of a single 1 gram dose to lactating women. The average levels over 24 hours ranged from 0.25 to 3.3 µg/mL. Caution should be exercised when CEFZIL (cefprozil) is administered to a nursing woman, since the effect of cefprozil on nursing infants is unknown.
The safety and effectiveness of cefprozil in the treatment of otitis media have been established in the age groups 6 months to 12 years. Use of CEFZIL (cefprozil) for the treatment of otitis media is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of cefprozil in pediatric patients. (See CLINICAL STUDIES.)
The safety and effectiveness of cefprozil in the treatment of pharyngitis/tonsillitis or uncomplicated skin and skin-structure infections have been established in the age groups 2 to 12 years. Use of CEFZIL (cefprozil) for the treatment of these infections is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of cefprozil in pediatric patients.
The safety and effectiveness of cefprozil in the treatment of acute sinusitis have been established in the age groups 6 months to 12 years. Use of CEFZIL (cefprozil) in these age groups is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of cefprozil in adults.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 6 months have not been established for the treatment of otitis media or acute sinusitis, or below the age of 2 years for the treatment of pharyngitis/tonsillitis or uncomplicated skin and skin-structure infections. However, accumulation of other cephalosporin antibiotics in newborn infants (resulting from prolonged drug half-life in this age group) has been reported.
Of the more than 4500 adults treated with CEFZIL (cefprozil) in clinical studies, 14% were 65 years and older, while 5% were 75 years and older. When geriatric patients received the usual recommended adult doses, their clinical efficacy and safety were comparable to clinical efficacy and safety in nongeriatric adult patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals to the effects of CEFZIL cannot be excluded (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
CEFZIL (cefprozil) is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection and it may be useful to monitor renal function. See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for dosing recommendations for patients with impaired renal function.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/3/2007
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