"Jan. 12, 2011 -- A new study weighs in on the debate over the relative safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs), commonly used to treat joint and muscle aches and pain.
The study, published online in the BMJ,"...
Mechanism Of Action
CELEBREX is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities in animal models. The mechanism of action of CELEBREX is believed to be due to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, primarily via inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and at therapeutic concentrations in humans, CELEBREX does not inhibit the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) isoenzyme. In animal colon tumor models, CELEBREX reduced the incidence and multiplicity of tumors.
In clinical trials using normal volunteers, CELEBREX at single doses up to 800 mg and multiple doses of 600 mg twice daily for up to 7 days duration (higher than recommended therapeutic doses) had no effect on reduction of platelet aggregation or increase in bleeding time. Because of its lack of platelet effects, CELEBREX is not a substitute for aspirin for cardiovascular prophylaxis. It is not known if there are any effects of CELEBREX on platelets that may contribute to the increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic adverse events associated with the use of CELEBREX.
Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis may lead to sodium and water retention through increased reabsorption in the renal medullary thick ascending loop of Henle and perhaps other segments of the distal nephron. In the collecting ducts, PGE2 appears to inhibit water reabsorption by counteracting the action of antidiuretic hormone.
Peak plasma levels of celecoxib occur approximately 3 hrs after an oral dose. Under fasting conditions, both peak plasma levels (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) are roughly dose-proportional up to 200 mg BID; at higher doses there are less than proportional increases in Cmax and AUC [see Food Effects]. Absolute bioavailability studies have not been conducted. With multiple dosing, steadystate conditions are reached on or before Day 5. The pharmacokinetic parameters of celecoxib in a group of healthy subjects are shown in Table 3.
Table 3 : Summary of Single Dose (200 mg) Disposition Kinetics
of Celecoxib in Healthy Subjects1
|Mean (%CV) PK Parameter Values|
|Cmax, ng/mL||Tmax, hr||Effective t½, hr||Vss/F, L||CL/F, L/hr|
|705 (38)||2.8 (37)||11.2 (31)||429 (34)||27.7 (28)|
|1 Subjects under fasting conditions (n=36, 19-52 yrs.)|
When CELEBREX capsules were taken with a high fat meal, peak plasma levels were delayed for about 1 to 2 hours with an increase in total absorption (AUC) of 10% to 20%. Under fasting conditions, at doses above 200 mg, there is less than a proportional increase in Cmax and AUC, which is thought to be due to the low solubility of the drug in aqueous media.
Coadministration of CELEBREX with an aluminum- and magnesium-containing antacids resulted in a reduction in plasma celecoxib concentrations with a decrease of 37% in Cmax and 10% in AUC. CELEBREX, at doses up to 200 mg twice daily, can be administered without regard to timing of meals. Higher doses (400 mg twice daily) should be administered with food to improve absorption.
In healthy adult volunteers, the overall systemic exposure (AUC) of celecoxib was equivalent when celecoxib was administered as intact capsule or capsule contents sprinkled on applesauce. There were no significant alterations in Cmax, Tmax or t½ after administration of capsule contents on applesauce [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
In healthy subjects, celecoxib is highly protein bound (~97%) within the clinical dose range. In vitro studies indicate that celecoxib binds primarily to albumin and, to a lesser extent, α1-acid glycoprotein. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vss/F) is approximately 400 L, suggesting extensive distribution into the tissues. Celecoxib is not preferentially bound to red blood cells.
Celecoxib metabolism is primarily mediated via CYP2C9. Three metabolites, a primary alcohol, the corresponding carboxylic acid and its glucuronide conjugate, have been identified in human plasma. These metabolites are inactive as COX-1 or COX-2 inhibitors.
Celecoxib is eliminated predominantly by hepatic metabolism with little ( < 3%) unchanged drug recovered in the urine and feces. Following a single oral dose of radiolabeled drug, approximately 57% of the dose was excreted in the feces and 27% was excreted into the urine. The primary metabolite in both urine and feces was the carboxylic acid metabolite (73% of dose) with low amounts of the glucuronide also appearing in the urine. It appears that the low solubility of the drug prolongs the absorption process making terminal half-life (t½) determinations more variable. The effective halflife is approximately 11 hours under fasted conditions. The apparent plasma clearance (CL/F) is about 500 mL/min.
At steady state, elderly subjects (over 65 years old) had a 40% higher Cmax and a 50% higher AUC compared to the young subjects. In elderly females, celecoxib Cmax and AUC are higher than those for elderly males, but these increases are predominantly due to lower body weight in elderly females. Dose adjustment in the elderly is not generally necessary. However, for patients of less than 50 kg in body weight, initiate therapy at the lowest recommended dose [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Use in Specific Populations].
The steady state pharmacokinetics of celecoxib administered as an investigational oral suspension was evaluated in 152 JRA patients 2 years to 17 years of age weighing ≥ 10 kg with pauciarticular or polyarticular course JRA and in patients with systemic onset JRA. Population pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the oral clearance (unadjusted for body weight) of celecoxib increases less than proportionally to increasing weight, with 10 kg and 25 kg patients predicted to have 40% and 24% lower clearance, respectively, compared with a 70 kg adult RA patient.
Twice-daily administration of 50 mg capsules to JRA patients weighing ≥ 12 to ≤ 25 kg and 100 mg capsules to JRA patients weighing > 25 kg should achieve plasma concentrations similar to those observed in a clinical trial that demonstrated the non-inferiority of celecoxib to naproxen 7.5 mg/kg twice daily (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Celecoxib has not been studied in JRA patients under the age of 2 years, in patients with body weight less than 10 kg (22 lbs), or beyond 24 weeks.
Meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic studies has suggested an approximately 40% higher AUC of celecoxib in Blacks compared to Caucasians. The cause and clinical significance of this finding is unknown.
A pharmacokinetic study in subjects with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) and moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment has shown that steady-state celecoxib AUC is increased about 40% and 180%, respectively, above that seen in healthy control subjects. Therefore, the daily recommended dose of CELEBREX capsules should be reduced by approximately 50% in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment. Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child- Pugh Class C) have not been studied. The use of CELEBREX in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Use In Specific Populations].
In a cross-study comparison, celecoxib AUC was approximately 40% lower in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (GFR 35-60 mL/min) than that seen in subjects with normal renal function. No significant relationship was found between GFR and celecoxib clearance. Patients with severe renal insufficiency have not been studied. Similar to other NSAIDs, CELEBREX is not recommended in patients with severe renal insufficiency [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
In vitro studies indicate that celecoxib is not an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2C9, 2C19 or 3A4.
In vivo studies have shown the following:
In a study conducted in healthy subjects, mean steady-state lithium plasma levels increased approximately 17% in subjects receiving lithium 450 mg twice daily with CELEBREX 200 mg twice daily as compared to subjects receiving lithium alone [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Concomitant administration of fluconazole at 200 mg once daily resulted in a two-fold increase in celecoxib plasma concentration. This increase is due to the inhibition of celecoxib metabolism via P450 2C9 by fluconazole [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
The effects of celecoxib on the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of glyburide, ketoconazole, methotrexate [see DRUG INTERACTIONS], phenytoin, and tolbutamide have been studied in vivo and clinically important interactions have not been found.
CYP2C9 activity is reduced in individuals with genetic polymorphisms that lead to reduced enzyme activity, such as those homozygous for the CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms. Limited data from 4 published reports that included a total of 8 subjects with the homozygous CYP2C9*3/*3 genotype showed celecoxib systemic levels that were 3- to 7-fold higher in these subjects compared to subjects with CYP2C9*1/*1 or *I/*3 genotypes. The pharmacokinetics of celecoxib have not been evaluated in subjects with other CYP2C9 polymorphisms, such as *2, *5, *6, *9 and *11. It is estimated that the frequency of the homozygous *3/*3 genotype is 0.3% to 1.0% in various ethnic groups. [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Use In Specific Populations].
An increase in the incidence of background findings of spermatocele with or without secondary changes such as epididymal hypospermia as well as minimal to slight dilation of the seminiferous tubules was seen in the juvenile rat. These reproductive findings while apparently treatment-related did not increase in incidence or severity with dose and may indicate an exacerbation of a spontaneous condition. Similar reproductive findings were not observed in studies of juvenile or adult dogs or in adult rats treated with celecoxib. The clinical significance of this observation is unknown.
CELEBREX has demonstrated significant reduction in joint pain compared to placebo. CELEBREX was evaluated for treatment of the signs and the symptoms of OA of the knee and hip in placebo- and active-controlled clinical trials of up to 12 weeks duration. In patients with OA, treatment with CELEBREX 100 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily resulted in improvement in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities) osteoarthritis index, a composite of pain, stiffness, and functional measures in OA. In three 12-week studies of pain accompanying OA flare, CELEBREX doses of 100 mg twice daily and 200 mg twice daily provided significant reduction of pain within 24-48 hours of initiation of dosing. At doses of 100 mg twice daily or 200 mg twice daily the effectiveness of CELEBREX was shown to be similar to that of naproxen 500 mg twice daily. Doses of 200 mg twice daily provided no additional benefit above that seen with 100 mg twice daily. A total daily dose of 200 mg has been shown to be equally effective whether administered as 100 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily.
CELEBREX has demonstrated significant reduction in joint tenderness/pain and joint swelling compared to placebo. CELEBREX was evaluated for treatment of the signs and symptoms of RA in placebo- and active-controlled clinical trials of up to 24 weeks in duration. CELEBREX was shown to be superior to placebo in these studies, using the ACR20 Responder Index, a composite of clinical, laboratory, and functional measures in RA. CELEBREX doses of 100 mg twice daily and 200 mg twice daily were similar in effectiveness and both were comparable to naproxen 500 mg twice daily.
Although CELEBREX 100 mg twice daily and 200 mg twice daily provided similar overall effectiveness, some patients derived additional benefit from the 200 mg twice daily dose. Doses of 400 mg twice daily provided no additional benefit above that seen with 100-200 mg twice daily.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
In a 12-week, randomized, double-blind active-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter, non-inferiority study, patients from 2 years to 17 years of age with pauciarticular, polyarticular course JRA or systemic onset JRA (with currently inactive systemic features), received one of the following treatments: celecoxib 3 mg/kg (to a maximum of 150 mg) twice daily; celecoxib 6 mg/kg (to a maximum of 300 mg) twice daily; or naproxen 7.5 mg/kg (to a maximum of 500 mg) twice daily. The response rates were based upon the JRA Definition of Improvement greater than or equal to 30% (JRA DOI 30) criterion, which is a composite of clinical, laboratory, and functional measures of JRA. The JRA DOI 30 response rates at week 12 were 69%, 80% and 67% in the celecoxib 3 mg/kg BID, celecoxib 6 mg/kg BID, and naproxen 7.5 mg/kg BID treatment groups, respectively.
The efficacy and safety of CELEBREX for JRA have not been studied beyond six months. The long-term cardiovascular toxicity in children exposed to CELEBREX has not been evaluated and it is unknown if the long-term risk may be similar to that seen in adults exposed to CELEBREX or other COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs [(see BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
CELEBREX was evaluated in AS patients in two placebo- and active-controlled clinical trials of 6 and 12 weeks duration.CELEBREX at doses of 100 mg twice daily, 200 mg once daily and 400 mg once daily was shown to be statistically superior to placebo in these studies for all three co-primary efficacy measures assessing global pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), global disease activity (Visual Analogue Scale) and functional impairment (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index). In the 12-week study, there was no difference in the extent of improvement between the 200 mg and 400 mg CELEBREX doses in a comparison of mean change from baseline, but there was a greater percentage of patients who responded to CELEBREX 400 mg, 53%, than to CELEBREX 200 mg, 44%, using the Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis response criteria (ASAS 20). The ASAS 20 defines a responder as improvement from baseline of at least 20% and an absolute improvement of at least 10 mm, on a 0 to 100 mm scale, in at least three of the four following domains: patient global pain, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, and inflammation. The responder analysis also demonstrated no change in the responder rates beyond 6 weeks.
Analgesia, Including Primary Dysmenorrhea
In acute analgesic models of post-oral surgery pain, post-orthopedic surgical pain, and primary dysmenorrhea, CELEBREX relieved pain that was rated by patients as moderate to severe. Single doses [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION] of CELEBREX provided pain relief within 60 minutes.
Adenomatous Polyp Prevention Studies
Cardiovascular safety was evaluated in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three year studies involving patients with Sporadic Adenomatous Polyps treated with CELEBREX: the APC trial (Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib) and the PreSAP trial (Prevention of Spontaneous Adenomatous Polyps). In the APC trial, there was a dose-related increase in the composite endpoint (adjudicated) of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke with celecoxib compared to placebo over 3 years of treatment. The PreSAP trial did not demonstrate a statistically significant increased risk for the same composite endpoint (adjudicated):
- In the APC trial, the hazard ratios compared to placebo for a composite endpoint (adjudicated) of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke were 3.4 (95% CI 1.4 - 8.5) with celecoxib 400 mg twice daily and 2.8 (95% CI 1.1 - 7.2) with celecoxib 200 mg twice daily. Cumulative rates for this composite endpoint over 3 years were 3.0% (20/671 subjects) and 2.5% (17/685 subjects), respectively, compared to 0.9% (6/679 subjects) with placebo treatment. The increases in both celecoxib dose groups versus placebo-treated patients were mainly due to an increased incidence of myocardial infarction.
- In the PreSAP trial, the hazard ratio for this same composite endpoint (adjudicated) was 1.2 (95% CI 0.6 - 2.4) with celecoxib 400 mg once daily compared to placebo. Cumulative rates for this composite endpoint over 3 years were 2.3% (21/933 subjects) and 1.9% (12/628 subjects), respectively.
Clinical trials of other COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs of up to three-years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. As a result, all NSAIDs are considered potentially associated with this risk.
Celecoxib Long-Term Arthritis Safety Study (CLASS)
This was a prospective, long-term, safety outcome study conducted post-marketing in approximately 5,800 OA patients and 2,200 RA patients. Patients received CELEBREX 400 mg twice daily (4-fold and 2-fold the recommended OA and RA doses, respectively), ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily or diclofenac 75 mg twice daily (common therapeutic doses). Median exposures for CELEBREX (n = 3,987) and diclofenac (n = 1,996) were 9 months while ibuprofen (n = 1,985) was 6 months. The primary endpoint of this outcome study was the incidence of complicated ulcers (gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation or obstruction). Patients were allowed to take concomitant low-dose ( ≤ 325 mg/day) aspirin (ASA) for cardiovascular prophylaxis (ASA subgroups: CELEBREX, n = 882; diclofenac, n = 445; ibuprofen, n = 412). Differences in the incidence of complicated ulcers between CELEBREX and the combined group of ibuprofen and diclofenac were not statistically significant.
Patients on CELEBREX and concomitant low-dose ASA (N=882) experienced 4-fold higher rates of complicated ulcers compared to those not on ASA (N=3105). The Kaplan-Meier rate for complicated ulcers at 9 months was 1.12% versus 0.32% for those on low-dose ASA and those not on ASA, respectively [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
The estimated cumulative rates at 9 months of complicated and symptomatic ulcers for patients treated with CELEBREX 400 mg twice daily are described in Table 4. Table 4 also displays results for patients less than or greater than 65 years of age. The difference in rates between CELEBREX alone and CELEBREX with ASA groups may be due to the higher risk for GI events in ASA users.
Table 4: Complicated and Symptomatic Ulcer Rates in Patients
Taking CELEBREX 400 mg Twice Daily (Kaplan- Meier Rates at 9 months [%]) Based
on Risk Factors
|Celebrex alone (n=3105)||0.78|
|Celebrex with ASA (n=882)||2.19|
|Patients < 65 Years|
|Celebrex alone (n=2025)||0.47|
|Celebrex with ASA (n=403)||1.26|
|Patients ≥ 65 Years|
|Celebrex alone (n=1080)||1.40|
|Celebrex with ASA (n=479)||3.06|
In a small number of patients with a history of ulcer disease, the complicated and symptomatic ulcer rates in patients taking CELEBREX alone or CELEBREX with ASA were, respectively, 2.56% (n=243) and 6.85% (n=91) at 48 weeks. These results are to be expected in patients with a prior history of ulcer disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Cardiovascular safety outcomes were also evaluated in the CLASS trial. Kaplan-Meier cumulative rates for investigator-reported serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (including MI, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, unstable angina, transient ischemic attacks, and ischemic cerebrovascular accidents) demonstrated no differences between the CELEBREX, diclofenac, or ibuprofen treatment groups. The cumulative rates in all patients at nine months for CELEBREX, diclofenac, and ibuprofen were 1.2%, 1.4%, and 1.1%, respectively. The cumulative rates in non-ASA users at nine months in each of the three treatment groups were less than 1%. The cumulative rates for myocardial infarction in non-ASA users at nine months in each of the three treatment groups were less than 0.2%. There was no placebo group in the CLASS trial, which limits the ability to determine whether the three drugs tested had no increased risk of CV events or if they all increased the risk to a similar degree.
The correlation between findings of shortterm endoscopic studies with CELEBREX and the relative incidence of clinically significant serious upper GI events with long-term use has not been established. Serious clinically significant upper GI bleeding has been observed in patients receiving CELEBREX in controlled and open-labeled trials [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Clinical Studies]
A randomized, double-blind study in 430 RA patients was conducted in which an endoscopic examination was performed at 6 months. The incidence of endoscopic ulcers in patients taking CELEBREX 200 mg twice daily was 4% vs. 15% for patients taking diclofenac SR 75 mg twice daily. However, CELEBREX was not statistically different than diclofenac for clinically relevant GI outcomes in the CLASS trial [see Clinical Studies].
The incidence of endoscopic ulcers was studied in two 12-week, placebo-controlled studies in 2157 OA and RA patients in whom baseline endoscopies revealed no ulcers. There was no dose relationship for the incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers and the dose of CELEBREX (50 mg to 400 mg twice daily). The incidence for naproxen 500 mg twice daily was 16.2 and 17.6% in the two studies, for placebo was 2.0 and 2.3%, and for all doses of CELEBREX the incidence ranged between 2.7%-5.9%. There have been no large, clinical outcome studies to compare clinically relevant GI outcomes with CELEBREX and naproxen.
In the endoscopic studies, approximately 11% of patients were taking aspirin ( ≤ 325 mg/day). In the CELEBREX groups, the endoscopic ulcer rate appeared to be higher in aspirin users than in non-users. However, the increased rate of ulcers in these aspirin users was less than the endoscopic ulcer rates observed in the active comparator groups, with or without aspirin.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/18/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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