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The principal adverse reactions associated with the administration of CellCept include diarrhea, leukopenia, sepsis, vomiting, and there is evidence of a higher frequency of certain types of infections eg, opportunistic infection (see WARNINGS: Infections and WARNINGS: Latent Viral Infections). The adverse event profile associated with the administration of CellCept Intravenous has been shown to be similar to that observed after administration of oral dosage forms of CellCept.
The incidence of adverse events for CellCept was determined in randomized, comparative, double-blind trials in prevention of rejection in renal (2 active, 1 placebo- controlled trials), cardiac (1 active-controlled trial), and hepatic (1 active-controlled trial) transplant patients.
Elderly patients ( ≥ 65 years), particularly those who are receiving CellCept as part of a combination immunosuppressive regimen, may be at increased risk of certain infections (including cytomegalovirus [CMV] tissue invasive disease) and possibly gastrointestinal hemorrhage and pulmonary edema, compared to younger individuals (see PRECAUTIONS).
Safety data are summarized below for all active-controlled trials in renal (2 trials), cardiac (1 trial), and hepatic (1 trial) transplant patients. Approximately 53% of the renal patients, 65% of the cardiac patients, and 48% of the hepatic patients have been treated for more than 1 year. Adverse events reported in ≥ 20% of patients in the CellCept treatment groups are presented below.
Table 8 : Adverse Events in Controlled Studies in
Prevention of Renal, Cardiac or Hepatic Allograft Rejection (Reported in ≥ 20%
of Patients in the CellCept Group)
|Renal Studies||Cardiac Study||Hepatic Study|
|CellCept 2 g/day||CellCept 3 g/day||Azathioprine 1 to 2 mg/kg/day or 100 to 150 mg/day||CellCept 3 g/day||Azathioprine 1.5 to 3 mg/kg/day||CellCept 3 g/day||Azathioprine 1 to 2 mg/kg/day|
|Body as a Whole|
|Hematologic and Lymphatic|
|Urinary tract infection||37.2||37.0||33.7||-||-||-||-|
|Kidney function abnormal||-||-||-||21.8||26.3||25.6||28.9|
|Metabolic and Nutritional|
|Lactic dehydrogenase increased||-||-||-||23.2||17.0||-||-|
|Liver function tests abnormal||-||-||-||-||-||24.9||19.2|
|Skin and Appendages|
The placebo-controlled renal transplant study generally showed fewer adverse events occurring in ≥ 20% of patients. In addition, those that occurred were not only qualitatively similar to the azathioprine-controlled renal transplant studies, but also occurred at lower rates, particularly for infection, leukopenia, hypertension, diarrhea and respiratory infection.
The above data demonstrate that in three controlled trials for prevention of renal rejection, patients receiving 2 g/day of CellCept had an overall better safety profile than did patients receiving 3 g/day of CellCept.
The above data demonstrate that the types of adverse events observed in multicenter controlled trials in renal, cardiac, and hepatic transplant patients are qualitatively similar except for those that are unique to the specific organ involved.
Sepsis, which was generally CMV viremia, was slightly more common in renal transplant patients treated with CellCept compared to patients treated with azathioprine. The incidence of sepsis was comparable in CellCept and in azathioprine-treated patients in cardiac and hepatic studies.
In the digestive system, diarrhea was increased in renal and cardiac transplant patients receiving CellCept compared to patients receiving azathioprine, but was comparable in hepatic transplant patients treated with CellCept or azathioprine.
Patients receiving CellCept alone or as part of an immunosuppressive regimen are at increased risk of developing lymphomas and other malignancies, particularly of the skin (see WARNINGS: Lymphoma and Malignancy). The incidence of malignancies among the 1483 patients treated in controlled trials for the prevention of renal allograft rejection who were followed for > 1 year was similar to the incidence reported in the literature for renal allograft recipients.
Lymphoproliferative disease or lymphoma developed in 0.4% to 1% of patients receiving CellCept (2 g or 3 g daily) with other immunosuppressive agents in controlled clinical trials of renal, cardiac, and hepatic transplant patients followed for at least 1 year (see WARNINGS: Lymphoma and Malignancy). Non-melanoma skin carcinomas occurred in 1.6% to 4.2% of patients, other types of malignancy in 0.7% to 2.1% of patients. Three-year safety data in renal and cardiac transplant patients did not reveal any unexpected changes in incidence of malignancy compared to the 1-year data.
In pediatric patients, no other malignancies besides lymphoproliferative disorder (2/148 patients) have been observed.
Severe neutropenia (ANC < 0.5 x 103/μL) developed in up to 2.0% of renal transplant patients, up to 2.8% of cardiac transplant patients and up to 3.6% of hepatic transplant patients receiving CellCept 3 g daily (see WARNINGS: Neutropenia, PRECAUTIONS: Laboratory Tests and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
All transplant patients are at increased risk of opportunistic infections. The risk increases with total immunosuppressive load (see WARNINGS: Infections and WARNINGS: Latent Viral Infections). Error! Reference source not found. Table 9 shows the incidence of opportunistic infections that occurred in the renal, cardiac, and hepatic transplant populations in the azathioprine-controlled prevention trials:
Table 9 : Viral and Fungal Infections in Controlled
Studies in Prevention of Renal, Cardiac or Hepatic Transplant Rejection
|Renal Studies||Cardiac Study||Hepatic Study|
|CellCept 2 g/day||CellCept 3 g/day||Azathioprine 1 to 2 mg/kg/day or 100 to 150 mg/day||CellCept 3 g/day||Azathioprine 1.5 to 3 mg/kg/day||CellCept 3 g/day||Azathioprine 1 to 2 mg/kg/day|
|- Tissue invasive disease||8.3||11.5||6.1||11.4||8.7||5.8||8.0|
|- Cutaneous disease||6.0||7.3||5.5||10.0||5.5||4.3||4.9|
The following other opportunistic infections occurred with an incidence of less than 4% in CellCept patients in the above azathioprine-controlled studies: Herpes zoster, visceral disease; Candida, urinary tract infection, fungemia/disseminated disease, tissue invasive disease; Cryptococcosis; Aspergillus/Mucor; Pneumocystis carinii.
In the placebo-controlled renal transplant study, the same pattern of opportunistic infection was observed compared to the azathioprine-controlled renal studies, with a notably lower incidence of the following: Herpes simplex and CMV tissue-invasive disease.
In patients receiving CellCept (2 g or 3 g) in controlled studies for prevention of renal, cardiac or hepatic rejection, fatal infection/sepsis occurred in approximately 2% of renal and cardiac patients and in 5% of hepatic patients (see WARNINGS: Infections).
In cardiac transplant patients, the overall incidence of opportunistic infections was approximately 10% higher in patients treated with CellCept than in those receiving azathioprine, but this difference was not associated with excess mortality due to infection/sepsis among patients treated with CellCept.
The following adverse events were reported with 3% to < 20% incidence in renal, cardiac, and hepatic transplant patients treated with CellCept, in combination with cyclosporine and corticosteroids.
Table 10 : Adverse Events Reported in 3% to < 20% of
Patients Treated With CellCept in Combination With Cyclosporine and
|Body as a Whole||abdomen enlarged, abscess, accidental injury, cellulitis, chills occurring with fever, cyst, face edema, flu syndrome, hemorrhage, hernia, lab test abnormal, malaise, neck pain, pelvic pain, peritonitis|
|Hematologic and Lymphatic||coagulation disorder, ecchymosis, pancytopenia, petechia, polycythemia, prothrombin time increased, thromboplastin time increased|
|Urogenital||acute kidney failure, albuminuria, dysuria, hydronephrosis, hematuria, impotence, kidney failure, kidney tubular necrosis, nocturia, oliguria, pain, prostatic disorder, pyelonephritis, scrotal edema, urine abnormality, urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, urinary tract disorder|
|Cardiovascular||angina pectoris, arrhythmia, arterial thrombosis, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, bradycardia, cardiovascular disorder, congestive heart failure, extrasystole, heart arrest, heart failure, hypotension, pallor, palpitation, pericardial effusion, peripheral vascular disorder, postural hypotension, pulmonary hypertension, supraventricular tachycardia, supraventricular extrasystoles, syncope, tachycardia, thrombosis, vasodilatation, vasospasm, ventricular extrasystole, ventricular tachycardia, venous pressure increased|
|Metabolic and Nutritional||abnormal healing, acidosis, alkaline phosphatase increased, alkalosis, bilirubinemia, creatinine increased, dehydration, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase increased, generalized edema, gout, hypercalcemia, hypercholesteremia, hyperlipemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperuricemia, hypervolemia, hypocalcemia, hypochloremia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia, hypoproteinemia, hypovolemia, hypoxia, lactic dehydrogenase increased, respiratory acidosis, SGOT increased, SGPT increased, thirst, weight gain, weight loss|
|Digestive||anorexia, cholangitis, cholestatic jaundice, dysphagia, esophagitis, flatulence, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal disorder, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gastrointestinal moniliasis, gingivitis, gum hyperplasia, hepatitis, ileus, infection, jaundice, liver damage, liver function tests abnormal, melena, mouth ulceration, nausea and vomiting, oral moniliasis, rectal disorder, stomach ulcer, stomatitis|
|Respiratory||apnea, asthma, atelectasis, bronchitis, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hiccup, hyperventilation, lung edema, lung disorder, neoplasm, pain, pharyngitis, pleural effusion, pneumonia, pneumothorax, respiratory disorder, respiratory moniliasis, rhinitis, sinusitis, sputum increased, voice alteration|
|Skin and Appendages||acne, alopecia, fungal dermatitis, hemorrhage, hirsutism, pruritus, rash, skin benign neoplasm, skin carcinoma, skin disorder, skin hypertrophy, skin ulcer, sweating, vesiculobullous rash|
|Nervous||agitation, anxiety, confusion, convulsion, delirium, depression, dry mouth, emotional lability, hallucinations, hypertonia, hypesthesia, nervousness, neuropathy, paresthesia, psychosis, somnolence, thinking abnormal, vertigo|
|Endocrine||Cushing's syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, parathyroid disorder|
|Musculoskeletal||arthralgia, joint disorder, leg cramps, myalgia, myasthenia, osteoporosis|
|Special Senses||abnormal vision, amblyopia, cataract (not specified), conjunctivitis, deafness, ear disorder, ear pain, eye hemorrhage, tinnitus, lacrimation disorder|
The type and frequency of adverse events in a clinical study in 100 pediatric patients 3 months to 18 years of age dosed with CellCept oral suspension 600 mg/m² bid (up to 1 g bid) were generally similar to those observed in adult patients dosed with CellCept capsules at a dose of 1 g bid with the exception of abdominal pain, fever, infection, pain, sepsis, diarrhea, vomiting, pharyngitis, respiratory tract infection, hypertension, leukopenia, and anemia, which were observed in a higher proportion in pediatric patients.
The adverse event profile of CellCept Intravenous was determined from a single, doubleblind, controlled comparative study of the safety of 2 g/day of intravenous and oral CellCept in renal transplant patients in the immediate posttransplant period (administered for the first 5 days). The potential venous irritation of CellCept Intravenous was evaluated by comparing the adverse events attributable to peripheral venous infusion of CellCept Intravenous with those observed in the intravenous placebo group; patients in this group received active medication by the oral route.
In the active controlled study in hepatic transplant patients, 2 g/day of CellCept Intravenous were administered in the immediate posttransplant period (up to 14 days). The safety profile of intravenous CellCept was similar to that of intravenous azathioprine.
Congenital malformations including ear malformations have been reported in offspring of patients exposed to mycophenolate mofetil during pregnancy (see WARNINGS: Pregnancy).
Hematologic and Lymphatic
Cases of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) have been reported in patients treated with CellCept in combination with other immunosuppressive agents.
Serious life-threatening infections such as meningitis and infectious endocarditis have been reported occasionally and there is evidence of a higher frequency of certain types of serious infections such as tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterial infection. Cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), sometimes fatal, have been reported in patients treated with CellCept. The reported cases generally had risk factors for PML, including treatment with immunosuppressant therapies and impairment of immune function. BK virus-associated nephropathy has been observed in patients receiving immunosuppressants, including CellCept. This infection is associated with serious outcomes, including deteriorating renal function and renal graft loss.
Interstitial lung disorders, including fatal pulmonary fibrosis, have been reported rarely and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary symptoms ranging from dyspnea to respiratory failure in posttransplant patients receiving CellCept.
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Drug interaction studies with mycophenolate mofetil have been conducted with acyclovir, antacids, cholestyramine, cyclosporine, ganciclovir, oral contraceptives, sevelamer, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, norfloxacin, and metronidazole. Drug interaction studies have not been conducted with other drugs that may be commonly administered to renal, cardiac or hepatic transplant patients. CellCept has not been administered concomitantly with azathioprine.
Coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil (1 g) and acyclovir (800 mg) to 12 healthy volunteers resulted in no significant change in MPA AUC and Cmax. However, MPAG and acyclovir plasma AUCs were increased 10.6% and 21.9%, respectively. Because MPAG plasma concentrations are increased in the presence of renal impairment, as are acyclovir concentrations, the potential exists for mycophenolate and acyclovir or its prodrug (eg, valacyclovir) to compete for tubular secretion, further increasing the concentrations of both drugs.
Antacids With Magnesium and Aluminum Hydroxides
Absorption of a single dose of mycophenolate mofetil (2 g) was decreased when administered to ten rheumatoid arthritis patients also taking Maalox® TC (10 mL qid). The Cmax and AUC(0-24h) for MPA were 33% and 17% lower, respectively, than when mycophenolate mofetil was administered alone under fasting conditions. CellCept may be administered to patients who are also taking antacids containing magnesium and aluminum hydroxides; however, it is recommended that CellCept and the antacid not be administered simultaneously.
Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)
Coadministration of PPIs (e.g., lansoprazole, pantoprazole) in single doses to healthy volunteers and multiple doses to transplant patients receiving CellCept has been reported to reduce the exposure to mycophenolic acid (MPA). An approximate reduction of 30 to 70% in the Cmax and 25% to 35% in the AUC of MPA has been observed, possibly due to a decrease in MPA solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical impact of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving PPIs and CellCept. Because clinical relevance has not been established, PPIs should be used with caution when coadministered to transplant patients being treated with CellCept.
Following single-dose administration of 1.5 g mycophenolate mofetil to 12 healthy volunteers pretreated with 4 g tid of cholestyramine for 4 days, MPA AUC decreased approximately 40%. This decrease is consistent with interruption of enterohepatic recirculation which may be due to binding of recirculating MPAG with cholestyramine in the intestine. Some degree of enterohepatic recirculation is also anticipated following intravenous administration of CellCept. Therefore, CellCept is not recommended to be given with cholestyramine or other agents that may interfere with enterohepatic recirculation.
Cyclosporine (Sandimmune®) pharmacokinetics (at doses of 275 to 415 mg/day) were unaffected by single and multiple doses of 1.5 g bid of mycophenolate mofetil in 10 stable renal transplant patients. The mean (±SD) AUC(0-12h) and Cmax of cyclosporine after 14 days of multiple doses of mycophenolate mofetil were 3290 (±822) ng*h/mL and 753 (±161) ng/mL, respectively, compared to 3245 (±1088) ng»h/mL and 700 (±246) ng/mL, respectively, 1 week before administration of mycophenolate mofetil.
In renal transplant patients, mean MPA exposure (AUC0-12h) was approximately 30-50% greater when mycophenolate mofetil is administered without cyclosporine compared with when mycophenolate mofetil is coadministered with cyclosporine. This interaction is due to cyclosporine inhibition of multidrug-resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP-2) transporter in the biliary tract, thereby preventing the excretion of MPAG into the bile that would lead to enterohepatic recirculation of MPA. This information should be taken into consideration when MMF is used without cyclosporine.
Following single-dose administration to 12 stable renal transplant patients, no pharmacokinetic interaction was observed between mycophenolate mofetil (1.5 g) and intravenous ganciclovir (5 mg/kg). Mean (±SD) ganciclovir AUC and Cmax (n=10) were 54.3 (±19.0) μg•h/mL and 11.5 (±1.8) ) μg /mL, respectively, after coadministration of the two drugs, compared to 51.0 (±17.0) μg•h/mL and 10.6 (±2.0) ) μg /mL, respectively, after administration of intravenous ganciclovir alone. The mean (±SD) AUC and Cmax of MPA (n=12) after coadministration were 80.9 (±21.6) μg•/mL and 27.8 (±13.9) μg /mL, respectively, compared to values of 80.3 (±16.4) μg•h/mL and 30.9 (±11.2) μg/mL, respectively, after administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone. Because MPAG plasma concentrations are increased in the presence of renal impairment, as are ganciclovir concentrations, the two drugs will compete for tubular secretion and thus further increases in concentrations of both drugs may occur. In patients with renal impairment in which MMF and ganciclovir or its prodrug (eg, valganciclovir) are coadministered, patients should be monitored carefully.
A study of coadministration of CellCept (1 g bid) and combined oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol (0.02 mg to 0.04 mg) and levonorgestrel (0.05 mg to 0.20 mg), desogestrel (0.15 mg) or gestodene (0.05 mg to 0.10 mg) was conducted in 18 women with psoriasis over 3 consecutive menstrual cycles. Mean AUC(0-24h) was similar for ethinylestradiol and 3-keto desogestrel; however, mean levonorgestrel AUC(0-24h) significantly decreased by about 15%. There was large inter-patient variability (%CV in the range of 60% to 70%) in the data, especially for ethinylestradiol. Mean serum levels of LH, FSH and progesterone were not significantly affected. CellCept may not have any influence on the ovulation-suppressing action of the studied oral contraceptives. However, it is recommended that oral contraceptives are coadministered with CellCept with caution and additional birth control methods be considered (see WARNINGS: Pregnancy).
Concomitant administration of sevelamer and mycophenolate mofetil in adult and pediatric patients decreased the mean MPA Cmax and AUC0.12h by 36% and 26% respectively. This data suggest that sevelamer and other calcium free phosphate binders should not be administered simultaneously with CellCept. Alternatively, it is recommended that sevelamer and other calcium free phosphate binders preferentially could be given 2 hours after CellCept intake to minimize the impact on the absorption of MPA.
Following single-dose administration of mycophenolate mofetil (1.5 g) to 12 healthy male volunteers on day 8 of a 10 day course of trimethoprim 160 mg/sulfamethoxazole 800 mg administered bid, no effect on the bioavailability of MPA was observed. The mean (±SD) AUC and Cmax of MPA after concomitant administration were 75.2 (±19.8) μg•h/mL and 34.0 (±6.6) μg/mL, respectively, compared to 79.2 (±27.9) μg•h/mL and 34.2 (±10.7) μg/mL, respectively, after administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone.
Norfloxacin and Metronidazole
Following single-dose administration of mycophenolate mofetil (1 g)to 11 healthy volunteers on day 4 of a 5 day course of a combination of norfloxacin and metronidazole, the mean MPA AUC0-48h was significantly reduced by 33% compared to the administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone (p < 0.05). Therefore, CellCept is not recommended to be given with the combination of norfloxacin and metronidazole. There was no significant effect on mean MPA AUC0-48h when mycophenolate mofetil was concomitantly administered with norfloxacin or metronidazole separately. The mean (±SD) MPA AUC0-48h after coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil with norfloxacin or metronidazole separately was 48.3 (±24) μg-h/mL and 42.7 (±23) μg·h/mL, respectively, compared with 56.2 (±24) μg-h/mL after administration of mycophenolate mofetil alone.
Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin plus Clavulanic Acid
A total of 64 CellCept-treated renal transplant recipients received either oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg bid or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid 375 mg tid for 7 or at least 14 days. Approximately 50% reductions in median trough MPA concentrations (predose) from baseline (CellCept alone) were observed in 3 days following commencement of oral ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid. These reductions in trough MPA concentrations tended to diminish within 14 days of antibiotic therapy and ceased within 3 days after discontinuation of antibiotics. The postulated mechanism for this interaction is an antibiotic-induced reduction in glucuronidase-possessing enteric organisms leading to a decrease in enterohepatic recirculation of MPA. The change in trough level may not accurately represent changes in overall MPA exposure; therefore, clinical relevance of these observations is unclear.
In a single heart-lung transplant patient, after correction for dose, a 67% decrease in MPA exposure (AUC0.12h) has been observed with concomitant administration of mycophenolate mofetil and rifampin. Therefore, CellCept is not recommended to be given with rifampin concomitantly unless the benefit outweighs the risk.
The measured value for renal clearance of MPAG indicates removal occurs by renal tubular secretion as well as glomerular filtration. Consistent with this, coadministration of probenecid, a known inhibitor of tubular secretion, with mycophenolate mofetil in monkeys results in a 3-fold increase in plasma MPAG AUC and a 2-fold increase in plasma MPA AUC. Thus, other drugs known to undergo renal tubular secretion may compete with MPAG and thereby raise plasma concentrations of MPAG or the other drug undergoing tubular secretion.
Drugs that alter the gastrointestinal flora may interact with mycophenolate mofetil by disrupting enterohepatic recirculation. Interference of MPAG hydrolysis may lead to less MPA available for absorption.
During treatment with CellCept, the use of live attenuated vaccines should be avoided and patients should be advised that vaccinations may be less effective (see PRECAUTIONS: General). Influenza vaccination may be of value. Prescribers should refer to national guidelines for influenza vaccination.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/29/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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