Nausea, vomiting, lethargy, tachycardia, bradycardia, asystole, cardiac arrest, hypotension, syncope, hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis, and death have been reported in cases of overdosage with fosphenytoin.
The median lethal dose of fosphenytoin given intravenously in mice and rats was 156 mg PE/kg and approximately 250 mg PE/kg, or about 0.6 and 2 times, respectively, the maximum human loading dose on a mg/m² basis. Signs of acute toxicity in animals included ataxia, labored breathing, ptosis, and hypoactivity.
Because CEREBYX is a prodrug of phenytoin, the following information may be helpful. Initial symptoms of acute phenytoin toxicity are nystagmus, ataxia, and dysarthria. Other signs include tremor, hyperreflexia, lethargy, slurred speech, nausea, vomiting, coma, and hypotension. Depression of respiratory and circulatory systems leads to death. There are marked variations among individuals with respect to plasma phenytoin concentrations where toxicity occurs. Lateral gaze nystagmus usually appears at 20 μg/mL, ataxia at 30 μg/mL, and dysarthria and lethargy appear when the plasma concentration is over 40 μg/mL. However, phenytoin concentrations as high as 50 μg/mL have been reported without evidence of toxicity. As much as 25 times the therapeutic phenytoin dose has been taken, resulting in plasma phenytoin concentrations over 100 μg/mL, with complete recovery.
Treatment is nonspecific since there is no known antidote to CEREBYX or phenytoin overdosage. The adequacy of the respiratory and circulatory systems should be carefully observed, and appropriate supportive measures employed. Hemodialysis can be considered since phenytoin is not completely bound to plasma proteins. Total exchange transfusion has been used in the treatment of severe intoxication in children. In acute overdosage the possibility of other CNS depressants, including alcohol, should be borne in mind.
Formate and phosphate are metabolites of fosphenytoin and therefore may contribute to signs of toxicity following overdosage. Signs of formate toxicity are similar to those of methanol toxicity and are associated with severe anion-gap metabolic acidosis. Large amounts of phosphate, delivered rapidly, could potentially cause hypocalcemia with paresthesia, muscle spasms, and seizures. Ionized free calcium levels can be measured and, if low, used to guide treatment.
CEREBYX is contraindicated in patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to CEREBYX or its ingredients, or to phenytoin or other hydantoins. Because of the effect of parenteral phenytoin on ventricular automaticity, CEREBYX is contraindicated in patients with sinus bradycardia, sino-atrial block, second and third degree A-V block, and Adams-Stokes syndrome. Coadministration of CEREBYX is contraindicated with delavirdine due to potential for loss of virologic response and possible resistance to delavirdine or to the class of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/20/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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