"Jan. 8, 2013 -- People with epilepsy have a higher risk for migraines, and now new research offers evidence of a genetic link between the two conditions.
The study confirmed that having a strong family history of epilepsy is a strong "...
DOSES OF CEREBYX ARE ALWAYS EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF MILLIGRAMS OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM EQUIVALENTS (mg PE) 1 MG PE IS EQUIVALENT TO 1 MG PHENYTOIN SODIUM.
DO NOT, THEREFORE, MAKE ANY ADJUSTMENT IN THE RECOMMENDED DOSES WHEN SUBSTITUTING CEREBYX FOR PHENYTOIN SODIUM OR VICE VERSA. FOR EXAMPLE, IF A PATIENT IS RECEIVING 1000 MG PE OF CEREBYX, THAT IS EQUIVALENT TO 1000 MG OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM.
The following warnings are based on experience with CEREBYX or phenytoin.
Do not confuse the amount of drug to be given in PE with the concentration of the drug in the vial.
Medication errors associated with CEREBYX have resulted in patients receiving the wrong dose of fosphenytoin. CEREBYX is marketed in 2 mL vials containing a total of 100 mg PE and 10 mL vials containing a total of 500 mg PE. The concentration of each vial is 50 mg PE/ mL. Errors have occurred when the concentration of the vial (50 mg PE/mL) was misinterpreted to mean that the total content of the vial was 50 mg PE. These errors have resulted in two- or ten-fold overdoses of CEREBYX since each vial actually contains a total of 100 mg PE or 500 mg PE. In some cases, ten-fold overdoses were associated with fatal outcomes. To help minimize confusion, the prescribed dose of CEREBYX should always be expressed in milligrams of phenytoin equivalents (mg PE) (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Additionally, when ordering and storing CEREBYX, consider displaying the total drug content (i.e., 100 mg PE/ 2 mL or 500 mg PE/ 10 mL) instead of concentration in computer systems, pre-printed orders, and automated dispensing cabinet databases to help ensure that total drug content can be clearly identified. Care should be taken to ensure the appropriate volume of CEREBYX is withdrawn from the vial when preparing the drug for administration. Attention to these details may prevent some CEREBYX medication errors from occurring.
Status Epilepticus Dosing Regimen
Because of the increased risk of adverse cardiovascular reactions associated with rapid administration, do not administer CEREBYX at a rate greater than 150 mg PE/min.
The dose of IV CEREBYX (15 to 20 mg PE/kg) that is used to treat status epilepticus is administered at a maximum rate of 150 mg PE/min. The typical CEREBYX infusion administered to a 50 kg patient would take between 5 and 7 minutes. Note that the delivery of an identical molar dose of phenytoin using parenteral Dilantin or generic phenytoin sodium injection cannot be accomplished in less than 15 to 20 minutes because of the untoward cardiovascular effects that accompany the direct intravenous administration of phenytoin at rates greater than 50 mg/min.
If rapid phenytoin loading is a primary goal, IV administration of CEREBYX is preferred because the time to achieve therapeutic plasma phenytoin concentrations is greater following IM than that following IV administration (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Cardiovascular Risk Associated With Rapid Infusion
As non-emergency therapy, intravenous CEREBYX should be administered more slowly. Because of the risks of cardiac and local toxicity associated with IV CEREBYX, oral phenytoin should be used whenever possible.
Because adverse cardiovascular reactions have occurred during and after infusions, careful cardiac monitoring is needed during and after the administration of intravenous CEREBYX. Reduction in rate of administration or discontinuation of dosing may be needed.
Adverse cardiovascular reactions include severe hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias. Cardiac arrhythmias have included bradycardia, heart block, QT interval prolongation, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation which have resulted in asystole, cardiac arrest, and death. Severe complications are most commonly encountered in critically ill patients, elderly patients, and patients with hypotension and severe myocardial insufficiency. However, cardiac events have also been reported in adults and children without underlying cardiac disease or comorbidities and at recommended doses and infusion rates.
Withdrawal Precipitated Seizure, Status Epilepticus
Antiepileptic drugs should not be abruptly discontinued because of the possibility of increased seizure frequency, including status epilepticus. When, in the judgment of the clinician, the need for dosage reduction, discontinuation, or substitution of alternative antiepileptic medication arises, this should be done gradually. However, in the event of an allergic or hypersensitivity reaction, rapid substitution of alternative therapy may be necessary. In this case, alternative therapy should be an antiepileptic drug not belonging to the hydantoin chemical class.
Serious Dermatologic Reactions
Serious and sometimes fatal dermatologic reactions, including toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), have been reported with phenytoin treatment. The onset of symptoms is usually within 28 days, but can occur later. CEREBYX should be discontinued at the first sign of a rash, unless the rash is clearly not drug-related. If signs or symptoms suggest SJS/TEN, use of this drug should not be resumed and alternative therapy should be considered. If a rash occurs, the patient should be evaluated for signs and symptoms of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (see DRESS/Multiorgan hypersensitivity below).
Studies in patients of Chinese ancestry have found a strong association between the risk of developing SJS/TEN and the presence of HLAB* 1502, an inherited allelic variant of the HLA B gene, in patients using carbamazepine. Limited evidence suggests that HLA-B*1502 may be a risk factor for the development of SJS/TEN in patients of Asian ancestry taking other antiepileptic drugs associated with SJS/TEN, including phenytoin. Consideration should be given to avoiding CEREBYX as an alternative for carbamazepine patients positive for HLAB* 1502.
The use of HLA-B*1502 genotyping has important limitations and must never substitute for appropriate clinical vigilance and patient management. The role of other possible factors in the development of, and morbidity from, SJS/TEN, such as antiepileptic drug (AED) dose, compliance, concomitant medications, comorbidities, and the level of dermatologic monitoring have not been studied.
Drug Reaction With Eosinophilia And Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)/Multiorgan Hypersensitivity
Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS), also known as Multiorgan hypersensitivity, has been reported in patients taking antiepileptic drugs, including phenytoin and CEREBYX. Some of these events have been fatal or life-threatening. DRESS typically, although not exclusively, presents with fever, rash, and/or lymphadenopathy, in association with other organ system involvement, such as hepatitis, nephritis, hematological abnormalities, myocarditis, or myositis sometimes resembling an acute viral infection. Eosinophilia is often present. Because this disorder is variable in its expression, other organ systems not noted here may be involved. It is important to note that early manifestations of hypersensitivity, such as fever or lymphadenopathy, may be present even though rash is not evident. If such signs or symptoms are present, the patient should be evaluated immediately. CEREBYX should be discontinued if an alternative etiology for the signs or symptoms cannot be established.
CEREBYX and other hydantoins are contraindicated in patients who have experienced phenytoin hypersensitivity (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Additionally, consider alternatives to structurally similar drugs such as carboxamides (e.g., carbamazepine), barbiturates, succinimides, and oxazolidinediones (e.g., trimethadione) in these same patients. Similarly, if there is a history of hypersensitivity reactions to these structurally similar drugs in the patient or immediate family members, consider alternatives to CEREBYX.
Cases of acute hepatotoxicity, including infrequent cases of acute hepatic failure, have been reported with phenytoin. These events may be part of the spectrum of DRESS or may occur in isolation. Other common manifestations include jaundice, hepatomegaly, elevated serum transaminase levels, leukocytosis, and eosinophilia. The clinical course of acute phenytoin hepatotoxicity ranges from prompt recovery to fatal outcomes. In these patients with acute hepatotoxicity, CEREBYX should be immediately discontinued and not readministered.
Hematopoietic complications, some fatal, have occasionally been reported in association with administration of phenytoin. These have included thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia, agranulocytosis, and pancytopenia with or without bone marrow suppression. There have been a number of reports that have suggested a relationship between phenytoin and the development of lymphadenopathy (local or generalized), including benign lymph node hyperplasia, pseudolymphoma, lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease. Although a cause and effect relationship has not been established, the occurrence of lymphadenopathy indicates the need to differentiate such a condition from other types of lymph node pathology. Lymph node involvement may occur with or without symptoms and signs resembling DRESS. In all cases of lymphadenopathy, follow-up observation for an extended period is indicated and every effort should be made to achieve seizure control using alternative antiepileptic drugs.
Acute alcohol intake may increase plasma phenytoin concentrations while chronic alcohol use may decrease plasma concentrations.
Usage In Pregnancy
Risks to Mother
An increase in seizure frequency may occur during pregnancy because of altered phenytoin pharmacokinetics. Periodic measurement of plasma phenytoin concentrations may be valuable in the management of pregnant women as a guide to appropriate adjustment of dosage (see PRECAUTIONS, Laboratory Tests). However, postpartum restoration of the original dosage will probably be indicated.
Risks to the Fetus
If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking the drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential harm to the fetus.
Prenatal exposure to phenytoin may increase the risks for congenital malformations and other adverse developmental outcomes. Increased frequencies of major malformations (such as orofacial clefts and cardiac defects), minor anomalies (dysmorphic facial features, nail and digit hypoplasia), growth abnormalities (including microcephaly), and mental deficiency have been reported among children born to epileptic women who took phenytoin alone or in combination with other antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy. There have also been several reported cases of malignancies, including neuroblastoma, in children whose mothers received phenytoin during pregnancy. The overall incidence of malformations for children of epileptic women treated with antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin and/or others) during pregnancy is about 10%, or two-to three-fold that in the general population. However, the relative contributions of antiepileptic drugs and other factors associated with epilepsy to this increased risk are uncertain and in most cases it has not been possible to attribute specific developmental abnormalities to particular antiepileptic drugs. Patients should consult with their physicians to weigh the risks and benefits of phenytoin during pregnancy.
A potentially life-threatening bleeding disorder related to decreased levels of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors may occur in newborns exposed to phenytoin in utero. This drug-induced condition can be prevented with vitamin K administration to the mother before delivery and to the neonate after birth.
Administration of phenytoin to pregnant animals resulted in teratogenicity (increased incidences of fetal malformations) and other developmental toxicity (including embryofetal death, growth impairment, and behavioral abnormalities) in multiple animal species at clinically relevant doses.
General (CEREBYX specific)
Severe burning, itching, and/or paresthesia were reported by 7 of 16 normal volunteers administered IV CEREBYX at a dose of 1200 mg PE at the maximum rate of administration (150 mg PE/min). The severe sensory disturbance lasted from 3 to 50 minutes in 6 of these subjects and for 14 hours in the seventh subject. In some cases, milder sensory disturbances persisted for as long as 24 hours. The location of the discomfort varied among subjects with the groin mentioned most frequently as an area of discomfort. In a separate cohort of 16 normal volunteers (taken from 2 other studies) who were administered IV CEREBYX at a dose of 1200 mg PE at the maximum rate of administration (150 mg PE/min), none experienced severe disturbances, but most experienced mild to moderate itching or tingling. Patients administered CEREBYX at doses of 20 mg PE/kg at 150 mg PE/min are expected to experience discomfort of some degree. The occurrence and intensity of the discomfort can be lessened by slowing or temporarily stopping the infusion. The effect of continuing infusion unaltered in the presence of these sensations is unknown. No permanent sequelae have been reported thus far. The pharmacologic basis for these positive sensory phenomena is unknown, but other phosphate ester drugs, which deliver smaller phosphate loads, have been associated with burning, itching, and/or tingling predominantly in the groin area.
Local Toxicity (Purple Glove Syndrome)
Edema, discoloration, and pain distal to the site of injection (described as “purple glove syndrome”) have also been reported following peripheral intravenous CEREBYX injection. This may or may not be associated with extravasation. The syndrome may not develop for several days after injection.
The phosphate load provided by CEREBYX (0.0037 mmol phosphate/mg PE CEREBYX) should be considered when treating patients who require phosphate restriction, such as those with severe renal impairment.
IV Loading In Renal And/Or Hepatic Disease Or In Those With Hypoalbuminemia
After IV administration to patients with renal and/or hepatic disease, or in those with hypoalbuminemia, fosphenytoin clearance to phenytoin may be increased without a similar increase in phenytoin clearance. This has the potential to increase the frequency and severity of adverse events (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Dosing in Special Populations).
General (Phenytoin Associated)
CEREBYX is not indicated for the treatment of absence seizures.
A small percentage of individuals who have been treated with phenytoin have been shown to metabolize the drug slowly. Slow metabolism may be due to limited enzyme availability and lack of induction; it appears to be genetically determined.
Phenytoin has been infrequently associated with the exacerbation of porphyria. Caution should be exercised when CEREBYX is used in patients with this disease.
Hyperglycemia, resulting from phenytoin's inhibitory effect on insulin release, has been reported. Phenytoin may also raise the serum glucose concentrations in diabetic patients.
Plasma concentrations of phenytoin sustained above the optimal range may produce confusional states referred to as “delirium,” “psychosis,” or “encephalopathy,” or rarely, irreversible cerebellar dysfunction and/or cerebellar atrophy. Accordingly, at the first sign of acute toxicity, determination of plasma phenytoin concentrations is recommended (see PRECAUTIONS: Laboratory Tests). CEREBYX dose reduction is indicated if phenytoin concentrations are excessive; if symptoms persist, administration of CEREBYX should be discontinued.
The liver is the primary site of biotransformation of phenytoin; patients with impaired liver function, elderly patients, or those who are gravely ill may show early signs of toxicity.
Phenytoin and other hydantoins are not indicated for seizures due to hypoglycemic or other metabolic causes. Appropriate diagnostic procedures should be performed as indicated.
Phenytoin has the potential to lower serum folate levels.
Phenytoin doses are usually selected to attain therapeutic plasma total phenytoin concentrations of 10 to 20 mcg/mL, (unbound phenytoin concentrations of 1 to 2 mcg/mL). Following CEREBYX administration, it is recommended that phenytoin concentrations not be monitored until conversion to phenytoin is essentially complete. This occurs within approximately 2 hours after the end of IV infusion and 4 hours after IM injection. Prior to complete conversion, commonly used immunoanalytical techniques, such as TDx®/TDxFLx™ (fluorescence polarization) and Emit® 2000 (enzyme multiplied), may significantly overestimate plasma phenytoin concentrations because of crossreactivity with fosphenytoin. The error is dependent on plasma phenytoin and fosphenytoin concentration (influenced by CEREBYX dose, route and rate of administration, and time of sampling relative to dosing), and analytical method. Chromatographic assay methods accurately quantitate phenytoin concentrations in biological fluids in the presence of fosphenytoin. Prior to complete conversion, blood samples for phenytoin monitoring should be collected in tubes containing EDTA as an anticoagulant to minimize ex vivo conversion of fosphenytoin to phenytoin. However, even with specific assay methods, phenytoin concentrations measured before conversion of fosphenytoin is complete will not reflect phenytoin concentrations ultimately achieved.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
See WARNINGS (Hematopoietic System) section
The carcinogenic potential of fosphenytoin has not been assessed. In 2-year carcinogenicity studies, phenytoin (active metabolite of fosphenytoin) was administered in the diet at doses of 0, 10, 25, or 45 mg/kg/day (mice) and 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day (rats). In mice, hepatocellular tumors were increased in males and females at the highest dose tested. No drug-related increase in tumors was observed in rats. The peak phenytoin levels at the highest doses tested were lower than those in humans at therapeutic concentrations.
In published 2-year carcinogenicity studies, phenytoin was administered in the diet at up to 600 ppm (approximately 90 mg/kg/day) to mice and up to 2400 ppm (approximately 120 mg/kg/day) to rats. The incidence of hepatocellular tumors was increased in mice. No drug-related increase in tumors was observed in rats.
An increase in structural chromosome aberrations were observed in cultured V79 Chinese hamster lung cells exposed to fosphenytoin in the presence of metabolic activation. No evidence of mutagenicity was observed in bacteria (Ames test) or Chinese hamster lung cells in vitro, and no evidence for clastogenic activity was observed in an in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.
Fosphenytoin was administered to male and female rats during mating and continuing in females throughout gestation and lactation at doses of 50 mg PE/kg or higher. No effects on fertility were observed in males. In females, altered estrous cycles, delayed mating, prolonged gestation length, and developmental toxicity were observed at all doses, which were associated with maternal toxicity. The lowest dose tested is approximately 40% of the maximum human loading dose on a mg/m² basis.
Use In Nursing Mothers
It is not known whether fosphenytoin is excreted in human milk.
Following administration of Dilantin, phenytoin appears to be excreted in low concentrations in human milk. Therefore, breast-feeding is not recommended for women receiving CEREBYX.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients has not been established.
No systematic studies in geriatric patients have been conducted. Phenytoin clearance tends to decrease with increasing age (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations).This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/16/2016
Additional Cerebyx Information
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