Cervical Dysplasia (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- What is cervical dysplasia?
- What causes cervical dysplasia?
- Are there symptoms of cervical dysplasia?
- How is cervical dysplasia diagnosed?
- How is cervical dysplasia classified?
- What are the treatments for cervical dysplasia?
- Carbon dioxide laser photoablation
- Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP)
- Cold knife cone biopsy (conization)
- What is the prognosis (outlook) for cervical dysplasia?
- Can cervical dysplasia be prevented?
- Cervical Dysplasia At A Glance
- Find a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. This operation is used to treat virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer. Sometimes, a hysterectomy is done to treat severe dysplasia. It may also be used if dysplasia recurs after any of the other treatment procedures.
What is the prognosis (outlook) for cervical dysplasia?
Low-grade cervical dysplasia (LGSIL and/or CIN1) often spontaneously resolves without treatment, but careful monitoring and follow-up testing is required. Both ablation and resection of areas of cervical dysplasia cure approximately 90% of women with dysplasia, meaning that 10% of women will have a recurrence of their abnormality after treatment, requiring additional treatment. When untreated, high grade cervical dysplasia may progress to cervical cancer over time. Resection and ablation therapies have been shown to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer by 95% in the first eight years after treatment in women with high grade dysplasia.
Can cervical dysplasia be prevented?
A vaccine is available against four common HPV types associated with the development of dysplasia and cervical cancer. This vaccine (Gardasil) has received FDA approval for use in women between 9 and 26 years of age and confers immunity against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18.
Abstinence from sexual activity can prevent the spread of HPVs that are transmitted via sexual contact. However, some researchers believe that HPV infection might be transmitted from the mother to infant in the birth canal, since some studies have identified genital HPV infection in populations of young children and cloistered nuns. Hand-genital and oral-genital transmission of HPV has also been documented and is another means of transmission.
HPV is transmitted by direct genital contact. The virus is not found in or spread by bodily fluids, and HPV is not found in blood or organs harvested for transplantation. Condom use seems to decrease the risk of transmission of HPV during sexual activity but does not completely prevent HPV infection. Spermicides and hormonal birth control methods do not prevent the spread of HPV infection.
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