Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Mary D. Nettleman, MD, MS, MACP
Mary D. Nettleman, MD, MS, MACP is the Chair of the Department of Medicine at Michigan State University. She is a graduate of Vanderbilt Medical School, and completed her residency in Internal Medicine and a fellowship in Infectious Diseases at Indiana University.
In this Article
- Cholera facts
- What is cholera?
- What are cholera symptoms and signs?
- What causes cholera, and how is cholera transmitted?
- What is the history of cholera?
- Who is at risk for cholera, and where do cholera outbreaks occur?
- How is cholera diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for cholera?
- What is the prognosis of cholera?
- Can cholera be prevented? Are cholera vaccines available?
- Where can people find more information about cholera?
What causes cholera, and how is cholera transmitted?
Cholera is caused by the bacterium V. cholerae. This bacterium is Gram stain-negative and has a flagellum (a long, tapering, projecting part) for motility and pili (hairlike structures) used to attach to tissue. Although there are many V. cholerae serotypes that can produce cholera symptoms, the O groups O1 and O139, which also produce a toxin, cause the most severe symptoms of cholera. O groups consist of different lipopolysaccharides-protein structures on the surface of bacteria that are distinguished by immunological techniques. The toxin produced by these V. cholerae serotypes is an enterotoxin composed of two subunits, A and B; the genetic information for the synthesis of these subunits is encoded on plasmids (genetic elements separate from the bacterial chromosome). In addition, another plasmid type encodes for a pilus (a hollow hairlike structure that can augment bacterial attachment to human cells and facilitate the movement of toxin from V. cholerae into human cells). The enterotoxin causes human cells to extract water and electrolytes from the body (mainly the upper gastrointestinal tract) and pump it into the intestinal lumen where the fluid and electrolytes are excreted as diarrheal fluid. The enterotoxin is similar to toxin formed by bacteria that cause diphtheria in that both bacterial types secret the toxins into their surrounding environment where the toxin then enters the human cells. The bacteria are usually transmitted by drinking contaminated water, but the bacteria can also be ingested in contaminated food, especially seafood such as raw oysters.
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