Benjamin Wedro, MD, FACEP, FAAEM
Dr. Ben Wedro practices emergency medicine at Gundersen Clinic, a regional trauma center in La Crosse, Wisconsin. His background includes undergraduate and medical studies at the University of Alberta, a Family Practice internship at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario and residency training in Emergency Medicine at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Cholesterol levels facts
- What is cholesterol?
- What are LDL and HDL cholesterol?
- What determines the level of LDL cholesterol in the blood?
- Does lowering LDL cholesterol prevent heart attacks and strokes?
- How can LDL cholesterol levels be lowered?
- What are "normal" cholesterol blood levels?
- What are the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines?
- Why is HDL the good cholesterol?
- What are LDL/HDL and total/HDL ratios?
- How can levels of HDL cholesterol be increased?
- What are triglycerides and VLDL?
- Do high triglyceride levels cause atherosclerosis?
- What causes elevated triglyceride levels?
- How can elevated blood triglyceride levels be treated?
- What medications are available to lower cholesterol, lipids, and triglycerides?
- Is lowering LDL cholesterol enough?
How can levels of HDL cholesterol be increased?
The first step in increasing HDL cholesterol levels (and decreasing LDL/HDL ratios) is by implementing therapeutic life style changes. Regular aerobic exercise, loss of excess weight (fat), and smoking cessation will increase HDL cholesterol levels. Regular alcohol consumption (such as one drink a day) will also raise HDL cholesterol. Because of other adverse health consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, alcohol is not recommended as a standard treatment for low HDL cholesterol.
What are triglycerides and VLDL?
Triglyceride is a fatty substance that is composed of three fatty acids. Like cholesterol, triglyceride in the blood either comes from the diet or the liver. Also, like cholesterol, triglyceride cannot dissolve and circulate in the blood without combining with a lipoprotein.
The liver removes triglyceride from the blood and it synthesizes and packages triglyceride into VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) particles and releases them back into the blood circulation.
Do high triglyceride levels cause atherosclerosis?
Whether elevated triglyceride levels in the blood lead to atherosclerosis and heart attacks is controversial. While abnormally high triglyceride levels may be a risk factor for atherosclerosis, it is difficult to conclusively prove that elevated triglyceride by itself can cause atherosclerosis. Elevated triglyceride levels are often associated with other conditions that increase the risk of atherosclerosis, including obesity, low levels of HDL cholesterol, insulin resistance, poorly-controlled diabetes, and small, dense LDL cholesterol particles.
Tips to keep it under control.