Chorionic Villus Sampling (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
In this Article
- What is chorionic villus sampling (CVS)?
- How is CVS performed?
- What are the benefits and risks of CVS?
- Who should receive CVS testing?
How is CVS performed?
Samples for CVS are taken in one of two ways:
- Transabdominal: In this method, similar to amniocentesis, a long, thin needle is inserted through the abdominal wall into the placenta, guided by ultrasound images.
- Transcervical: With the transcervical method, a long, thin tube is passed into the vagina and up into the uterus to obtain the sample by suction. This method is most common.
The procedure can be completed in about half an hour. The actual sampling process only takes a few minutes. There may be mild discomfort when the sample is taken. After the test you may have mild cramping and bleeding, and you should rest the day of the procedure. You may be asked to abstain from sex and vigorous activity for a few days after the test. You should contact your doctor if you experience fever, heavy vaginal bleeding or cramping, or leakage of fluid from the vagina after the test.
After the sample is removed, the cells are cultured in a laboratory and analyzed. It typically takes 7 to 10 days before results are available.
What are the benefits and risks of CVS?
A major benefit of CVS is that it can be performed earlier in the pregnancy than amniocentesis, providing information about genetic defects earlier in the pregnancy. If a woman chooses termination of pregnancy, it is safer at earlier stages of pregnancy.
Miscarriage is the main risk associated with CVS and occurs in 1 out of every 100 cases. The risk of miscarriage can be slightly greater than the risk of miscarriage associated with amniocentesis. Rarely, defects in the fingers or toes of the fetus have been reported with CVS, but these cases were particularly common when CVS was done very early in pregnancy, before 9 weeks' gestation. For this reason, most cases of CVS are performed only at or after 10 weeks' gestation. Infection is another uncommon complication of CVS.
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