"(Reuters) - A baby born with brain damage at a hospital in Oahu, Hawaii, was infected by the Zika virus, U.S. health officials confirmed on Saturday, apparently the first case of the mosquito-borne virus in a birth on U.S. soil.
CIPRO IV is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible isolates of the designated microorganisms in the conditions and patient populations listed below when the intravenous administration is needed [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Urinary Tract Infections
CIPRO IV is indicated in adult patients for treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia rettgeri, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter koseri, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, or Enterococcus faecalis.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
CIPRO IV is indicated in adult patients for treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, or Streptococcus pneumoniae.* Also, CIPRO IV is indicated for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by Moraxella catarrhalis [see Limitation of Use].
Skin And Skin Structure Infections
CIPRO IV is indicated in adult patients for treatment of skin and skin structure infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia stuartii, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillinsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, or Streptococcus pyogenes.
Bone And Joint Infections
CIPRO IV is indicated in adult patients for treatment of bone and joint infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections
CIPRO IV is indicated in adult patients for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (used in combination with metronidazole) caused by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Bacteroides fragilis.
CIPRO IV is indicated in adult patients for treatment of acute sinusitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Moraxella catarrhalis.
Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
CIPRO IV is indicated in adult patients for treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis caused by Escherichia coli or Proteus mirabilis.
Empirical Therapy For Febrile Neutropenic Patients
Complicated Urinary Tract Infections And Pyelonephritis
CIPRO IV is indicated in pediatric patients one to 17 years of age for treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) and pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli [see Limitation of Use, Use in Specific Populations, and Clinical Studies].
Inhalational Anthrax (post-exposure)
CIPRO IV is indicated in adults and pediatric patients from birth to 17 years of age for treatment of inhalational anthrax (post-exposure) to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis.
Ciprofloxacin serum concentrations achieved in humans served as a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit and provided the initial basis for approval of this indication.1 Supportive clinical information for ciprofloxacin for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis was obtained during the anthrax bioterror attacks of October 2001. [See Clinical Studies]
CIPRO IV is indicated for treatment of plague, including pneumonic and septicemic plague, due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) and prophylaxis for plague in adults and pediatric patients from birth to 17 years of age. Efficacy studies of ciprofloxacin could not be conducted in humans with plague for feasibility reasons. Therefore this indication is based on an efficacy study conducted in animals only [see Clinical Studies].
Limitation Of Use
Use in Pediatric Patients
Although effective in clinical trials, ciprofloxacin is not a drug of first choice in the pediatric population due to an increased incidence of adverse events compared to controls, including events related to joints and/or surrounding tissues. CIPRO IV, like other fluoroquinolones, is associated with arthropathy and histopathological changes in weight-bearing joints of juvenile animals [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, Use In Specific Populations, and Nonclinical Toxicology].
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
CIPRO IV is not a drug of first choice in the treatment of presumed or confirmed pneumonia secondary to Streptococcus pneumoniae.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of CIPRO IV and other antibacterial drugs, CIPRO IV should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
If anaerobic organisms are suspected of contributing to the infection, appropriate therapy should be administered. Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Therapy with CIPRO IV may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once results become available appropriate therapy should be continued. As with other drugs, some isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with ciprofloxacin. Culture and susceptibility testing performed periodically during therapy will provide information not only on the therapeutic effect of the antimicrobial agent but also on the possible emergence of bacterial resistance.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
CIPRO IV should be administered intravenously at dosages described in the appropriate Dosage Guidelines tables.
Dosage In Adults
The determination of dosage and duration for any particular patient must take into consideration the severity and nature of the infection, the susceptibility of the causative microorganism, the integrity of the patient's host-defense mechanisms, and the status of renal and hepatic function.
Table 1: Adult Dosage Guidelines
|Urinary Tract||200 mg to 400 mg||every 12 to every 8 hours||7–14 days|
|Lower Respiratory Tract||400 mg||every 12 to every 8 hours||7–14 days|
|Nosocomial Pneumonia||400 mg||every 8 hours||10–14 days|
|Skin and Skin Structure||400 mg||every 12 to every 8 hours||7–14 days|
|Bone and Joint||400 mg||every 12 to every 8 hours||4 to 8 weeks|
|Complicated Intra-Abdominal2||400 mg||every 12 hours||7-14 days|
|Acute Sinusitis||400 mg||every 12 hours||10 days|
|Chronic Bacterial prostatitis||400 mg||every 12 hours||28 days|
|Empirical Therapy In Febrile Neutropenic Patients||
CIPRO IV 400 mg and Piperacillin 50 mg/kg
|every 8 hours||
|every 4 hours|
|Inhalational anthrax(post-exposure)3||400 mg||every 12 hours||60 days|
|Plague3||400 mg||every 12 to 8 hours||14 days|
|1Due to the designated pathogens.
2Used in conjunction with metronidazole.
3Begin administration as soon as possible after suspected or confirmed exposure.
Conversion of Intravenous to Oral Dosing in Adults
Patients whose therapy is started with CIPRO IV may be switched to CIPRO Tablets or Oral Suspension when clinically indicated at the discretion of the physician (Table 2) [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Table 2: Equivalent AUC
|CIPRO Oral Dosage||Equivalent CIPRO IV Dosage|
|250 mg Tablet every 12 hours||200 mg intravenous every 12 hours|
|500 mg Tablet every 12 h||400 mg intravenous every 12 hours|
|750 mg Tablet every 12 hours||400 mg intravenous every 8 hours|
Dosage In Pediatric Patients
Dosing and initial route of therapy (that is, IV or oral) for cUTI or pyelonephritis should be determined by the severity of the infection.
Table 3: Pediatric Dosage Guidelines
|Infection||Dose (mg/kg)||Frequency||Total Duration|
|Complicated Urinary Tract or Pyelonephritis (patients from 1 to 17 years of age)1||6 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg (maximum 400 mg per dose; not to be exceeded even in patients weighing more than 51 kg)||Every 8 hours||10-21 days1|
|Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)2||10 mg/kg (maximum 400 mg per dose)||Every 12 hours||60 days|
|Plague2,3||10 mg/kg (maximum 400 mg per dose)||Every 12 to 8 hours||10-21 days|
|1The total duration of therapy for cUTI and
pyelonephritis in the clinical trial was determined by the physician. The mean
duration of treatment was 11 days (range 10 to 21 days).
2Begin drug administration as soon as possible after suspected or confirmed exposure.
3Begin drug administration as soon as possible after suspected or confirmed exposure to Y. pestis.
Dosage Modifications In Patients With Renal Impairment
Ciprofloxacin is eliminated primarily by renal excretion; however, the drug is also metabolized and partially cleared through the biliary system of the liver and through the intestine. These alternative pathways of drug elimination appear to compensate for the reduced renal excretion in patients with renal impairment. Nonetheless, some modification of dosage is recommended, particularly for patients with severe renal dysfunction. Dosage guidelines for use in patients with renal impairment are shown in Table 4.
Table 4: Recommended
Starting and Maintenance Doses for Adult Patients with Impaired Renal Function
|Creatinine Clearance (mL/min)||Dose|
|> 30||See Usual Dosage.|
|5-29||200-400 mg every 18-24 hours|
When only the serum creatinine
concentration is known, the following formulas may be used to estimate
|Males:||(weight in kg) x (140 – age)|
|(72) x serum creatinine (mg/100 mL)|
|Females||(0.85) x (above value)|
The serum creatinine should represent a steady state of renal function.
In patients with severe infections and severe renal impairment and hepatic insufficiency, careful monitoring is suggested.
Pediatric patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency were excluded from the clinical trial of cUTI and pyelonephritis. No information is available on dosing adjustments necessary for pediatric patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency (that is, creatinine clearance of < 50 mL/min/1.73m²).
Preparation Of CIPRO IV For Administration
CIPRO IV is available as a 0.2% premixed solution in 5% dextrose in flexible containers of 200 mL. The solutions in flexible containers do not need to be diluted and may be infused as described above.
Important Administration Instructions
CIPRO IV should be administered to by intravenous infusion over a period of 60 minutes. Slow infusion of a dilute solution into a larger vein will minimize patient discomfort and reduce the risk of venous irritation.
Hydration of Patients Receiving CIPRO IV
Adequate hydration of patients receiving CIPRO IV should be maintained to prevent the formation of highly concentrated urine. Crystalluria has been reported with quinolones [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, Nonclinical Toxicology and PATIENT INFORMATION].
Dosage Forms And Strengths
Injection (200 mL in 5% Dextrose, 400 mg, 0.2%) Premix in Flexible Containers, for intravenous infusion
Storage And Handling
CIPRO IV (ciprofloxacin) is available as a clear, colorless to slightly yellowish solution in flexible containers not made with natural rubber latex.
|200 mL||5% Dextrose 400 mg, 0.2%||50419-759-01|
Store between 5–25°C (41–77°F).
Protect from light, avoid excessive heat, protect from freezing.
Ciprofloxacin is also available as CIPRO (ciprofloxacin HCl) Tablets 250, 500 mg and CIPRO (ciprofloxacin*) 5% and 10% Oral Suspension.
1. 21 CFR 314.510 (Subpart H–Accelerated Approval of New Drugs for Life-Threatening Illnesses).
Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc. Whippany, NJ 07981. Manufactured in Germany. Revised: March 2015This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/13/2015
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