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Mechanism Of Action
Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial [see Microbiology].
Dexamethasone, a corticosteroid, has been shown to suppress inflammation by inhibiting multiple inflammatory cytokines resulting in decreased edema, fibrin deposition, capillary leakage and migration of inflammatory cells.
Following a single bilateral 4-drop (total dose = 0.28 mL, 0.84 mg ciprofloxacin, 0.28 mg dexamethasone) topical otic dose of CIPRODEX to pediatric patients after tympanostomy tube insertion, measurable plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone were observed at 6 hours following administration in 2 of 9 patients and 5 of 9 patients, respectively.
Mean ± SD peak plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin were 1.39 ± 0.880 ng/mL (n=9). Peak plasma concentrations ranged from 0.543 ng/mL to 3.45 ng/mL and were on average approximately 0.1% of peak plasma concentrations achieved with an oral dose of 250-mg. Peak plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin were observed within 15 minutes to 2 hours post dose application.
Mean ± SD peak plasma concentrations of dexamethasone were 1.14 ± 1.54 ng/mL (n=9). Peak plasma concentrations ranged from 0.135 ng/mL to 5.10 ng/mL and were on average approximately 14% of peak concentrations reported in the literature following an oral 0.5-mg tablet dose. Peak plasma concentrations of dexamethasone were observed within 15 minutes to 2 hours post dose application.
Dexamethasone has been added to aid in the resolution of the inflammatory response accompanying bacterial infection (such as otorrhea in pediatric patients with acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes).
Mechanism Of Action
The bactericidal action of ciprofloxacin results from interference with the enzyme, DNA gyrase, which is needed for the synthesis of bacterial DNA.
Cross-resistance has been observed between ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones. There is generally no cross-resistance between ciprofloxacin and other classes of antibacterial agents such as beta-lactams or aminoglycosides.
Ciprofloxacin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and clinically in otic infections [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE].
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Streptococcus pneumoniae
- Haemophilus influenzae
- Moraxella catarrhalis
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Animal Toxicology And/Or Pharmacology
In a randomized, multicenter, controlled clinical trial, CIPRODEX dosed 2 times per day for 7 days demonstrated clinical cures in the per protocol analysis in 86% of Acute Otitis Media with Tympanostomy Tubes (AOMT) patients compared to 79% for ofloxacin solution, 0.3%, dosed 2 times per day for 10 days. Among culture positive patients, clinical cures were 90% for CIPRODEX compared to 79% for ofloxacin solution, 0.3%. Microbiological eradication rates for these patients in the same clinical trial were 91% for CIPRODEX compared to 82% for ofloxacin solution, 0.3%.
In 2 randomized multicenter, controlled clinical trials, CIPRODEX dosed 2 times per day for 7 days demonstrated clinical cures in 87% and 94% of per protocol evaluable Acute Otitis Externa (AOE) patients, respectively, compared to 84% and 89%, respectively, for otic suspension containing neomycin 0.35%, polymyxin B 10,000 IU/mL, and hydrocortisone 1.0% (neo/poly/HC). Among culture positive patients clinical cures were 86% and 92% for CIPRODEX compared to 84% and 89%, respectively, for neo/poly/HC. Microbiological eradication rates for these patients in the same clinical trials were 86% and 92% for CIPRODEX compared to 85% and 85%, respectively, for neo/poly/HC.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/21/2016
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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