"Leptospirosis is a disease caused by bacteria. These bacteria are carried in the urine of infected animals. If an infected animal urinates in a body of fresh water (e.g., lake, river, stream) or soil, the disease can live there for weeks to month"...
Following a single bilateral 4-drop (total dose = 0.28 mL, 0.84 mg ciprofloxacin, 0.28 mg dexamethasone) topical otic dose of CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic to pediatric patients after tympanostomy tube insertion, measurable plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone were observed at 6 hours following administration in 2 of 9 patients and 5 of 9 patients, respectively.
Mean ± SD peak plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin were 1.39 ± 0.880 ng/mL (n=9). Peak plasma concentrations ranged from 0.543 ng/mL to 3.45 ng/mL and were on average approximately 0.1% of peak plasma concentrations achieved with an oral dose of 250-mg . Peak plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin were observed within 15 minutes to 2 hours post dose application.
Mean ± SD peak plasma concentrations of dexamethasone were 1.14 ± 1.54 ng/mL (n=9). Peak plasma concentrations ranged from 0.135 ng/mL to 5.10 ng/mL and were on average approximately 14% of peak concentrations reported in the literature following an oral 0.5-mg tablet dose. Peak plasma concentrations of dexamethasone were observed within 15 minutes to 2 hours post dose application.
Dexamethasone has been added to aid in the resolution of the inflammatory response accompanying bacterial infection (such as otorrhea in pediatric patients with AOM with tympanostomy tubes).
Ciprofloxacin has in vitro activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. The bactericidal action of ciprofloxacin results from interference with the enzyme, DNA gyrase, which is needed for the synthesis of bacterial DNA. Cross-resistance has been observed between ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones. There is generally no cross-resistance between ciprofloxacin and other classes of antibacterial agents such as beta-lactams or aminoglycosides.
Ciprofloxacin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and clinically in otic infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.
Aerobic and facultative gram-positive microorganisms
Aerobic and facultative gram-negative microorganisms
In a randomized, multicenter, controlled clinical trial, CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic dosed 2 times per day for 7 days demonstrated clinical cures in the per protocol analysis in 86% of AOMT patients compared to 79% for ofloxacin solution, 0.3%, dosed 2 times per day for 10 days. Among culture positive patients, clinical cures were 90% for CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic compared to 79% for ofloxacin solution, 0.3%. Microbiological eradication rates for these patients in the same clinical trial were 91% for CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic compared to 82% for ofloxacin solution, 0.3%. In 2 randomized multicenter, controlled clinical trials, CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic dosed 2 times per day for 7 days demonstrated clinical cures in 87% and 94% of per protocol evaluable AOE patients, respectively, compared to 84% and 89%, respectively, for otic suspension containing neomycin 0.35%, polymyxin B 10,000 IU/mL, and hydrocortisone 1.0% (neo/poly/HC). Among culture positive patients clinical cures were 86% and 92% for CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic compared to 84% and 89%, respectively, for neo/poly/HC. Microbiological eradication rates for these patients in the same clinical trials were 86% and 92% for CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic compared to 85% and 85%, respectively, for neo/poly/HC.
1. Campoli-Richards DM, Monk JP, Price A, Benfield P, Todd PA, Ward A. Ciprofloxacin: A review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use. Drugs 1988;35:373-447.
2. Loew D, Schuster O, and Graul E. Dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1986;30:225-230.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/17/2007
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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