Cocaine and Crack Abuse (cont.)
Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD
Dr. Roxanne Dryden-Edwards is an adult, child, and adolescent psychiatrist. She is a former Chair of the Committee on Developmental Disabilities for the American Psychiatric Association, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, and Medical Director of the National Center for Children and Families in Bethesda, Maryland.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Cocaine and crack abuse facts
- What is cocaine? What is crack?
- How is cocaine abused?
- What are cocaine's effects on the body and the mind?
- What causes and prevents cocaine abuse and addiction?
- What are symptoms and signs of cocaine abuse and addiction?
- How is cocaine addiction diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for cocaine and crack addiction?
- What are symptoms and signs of cocaine withdrawal?
- What are the long-term effects and the prognosis for cocaine and crack addiction?
- Where can people find more information about cocaine and crack abuse?
- Find a local Psychiatrist in your town
What causes and prevents cocaine abuse and addiction?
Like the majority of other mental health problems, cocaine abuse and addiction have no single cause. However, there are a number of biological, psychological, and social risk factors that can increase a person's likelihood of developing a chemical abuse or chemical dependency disorder. The frequency that substance-abuse disorders occur within some families seems to be higher than can be explained by the addictive environment of the family. Therefore, most substance-abuse professionals recognize a genetic aspect to the risk of drug addiction. This is particularly true for cocaine dependence.
Mental-disorder symptoms that are caused by cocaine abuse or addiction include mood disorders like depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder, as well as personality disorders like antisocial personality disorder. Social risk factors for drug abuse and addiction include male gender, ages 18 to 44 years old, Native American heritage, unmarried marital status, and lower socioeconomic status. According to statistics by state, people residing in the West tend to be at higher risk for chemical abuse or dependency. As with substance abuse in general, prevention of cocaine abuse and addiction is increased by circumstances like receiving appropriate supervision, as well as clear messages from family members that cocaine use is unacceptable.
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