July 28, 2016
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Mechanism Of Action

Balsalazide disodium is delivered intact to the colon where it is cleaved by bacterial azoreduction to release equimolar quantities of mesalamine, which is the therapeutically active portion of the molecule, and the 4-aminobenzoyl-s-alanine carrier moiety. The carrier moiety released when balsalazide disodium is cleaved is only minimally absorbed and is largely inert.

The mechanism of action of 5-ASA is unknown, but appears to be local to the colonic mucosa rather than systemic. Mucosal production of arachidonic acid metabolites, both through the cyclooxygenase pathways, i.e., prostanoids, and through the lipoxygenase pathways, i.e., leukotrienes and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, is increased in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease, and it is possible that 5-ASA diminishes inflammation by blocking production of arachidonic acid metabolites in the colon.


COLAZAL capsules contain a powder of balsalazide disodium that is insoluble in acid and designed to be delivered to the colon as the intact prodrug. Upon reaching the colon, bacterial azoreductases cleave the compound to release 5-ASA, the therapeutically active portion of the molecule, and 4-aminobenzoyl--alanine. The 5-ASA is further metabolized to yield N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid (N-Ac-5-ASA), a second key metabolite.


The plasma pharmacokinetics of balsalazide and its key metabolites from a crossover study in healthy volunteers are summarized in Table 3. In this study, a single oral dose of COLAZAL 2.25 g was administered to healthy volunteers as intact capsules (3 x 750 mg) under fasting conditions, as intact capsules (3 x 750 mg) after a high-fat meal, and unencapsulated (3 x 750 mg) as sprinkles on applesauce.

Table 3: Plasma Pharmacokinetics for Balsalazide and Key Metabolites (5—ASA and N-Ac-5- ASA) with Administration of COLAZAL Following a Fast, a High-Fat Meal, and Drug Contents Sprinkled on Applesauce (Mean ± SD)

n = 17
High-fat Meal
n = 17
n = 17
Cmax (μg/mL)
  Balsalazide 0.51 ± 0.32 0.45 ± 0.39 0.21 ± 0.12
  5-ASA 0.22 ± 0.12 0.11 ± 0.136 0.29 ± 0.17
  N-Ac-5-ASA 0.88 ± 0.39 0.64 ± 0.534 1.04 ± 0.57
AUClast (μghr/mL)
  Balsalazide 1.35 ± 0.73 1.52 ± 1.01 0.87 ± 0.48
  5-ASA 2.59 ± 1.46 2.10 ± 2.58 2.99 ± 1.70
  N-Ac-5-ASA 17.8 ± 8.14 17.7 ± 13.7 20.0 ± 11.4
Tmax (h)
  Balsalazide 0.8 ± 0.85 1.2 ± 1.11 1.6 ± 0.44
  5-ASA 8.2 ± 1.98 22.0 ± 8.23 8.7 ± 1.99
  N-Ac-5-ASA 9.9 ± 2.49 20.2 ± 8.94 10.8 ± 5.39

A relatively low systemic exposure was observed under all three administered conditions (fasting, fed with high-fat meal, sprinkled on applesauce), which reflects the variable, but minimal absorption of balsalazide disodium and its metabolites. The data indicate that both Cmax and AUClast were lower, while tmax was markedly prolonged, under fed (high-fat meal) compared to fasted conditions. Moreover, the data suggest that dosing balsalazide disodium as a sprinkle or as a capsule provides highly variable, but relatively similar mean pharmacokinetic parameter values. No inference can be made as to how the systemic exposure differences of balsalazide and its metabolites in this study might predict the clinical efficacy under different dosing conditions (i.e., fasted, fed with high-fat meal, or sprinkled on applesauce) since clinical efficacy after balsalazide disodium administration is presumed to be primarily due to the local effects of 5-ASA on the colonic mucosa.

In a separate study of adult patients with ulcerative colitis, who received balsalazide, 1.5 g twice daily, for over 1 year, systemic drug exposure, based on mean AUC values, was up to 60 times greater (0.008 μg•hr/mL to 0.480 μg•hr/mL) when compared to that obtained in healthy subjects who received the same dose.


The binding of balsalazide to human plasma proteins was ≥ 99%.


The products of the azoreduction of this compound, 5-ASA and 4-aminobenzoyl--alanine, and their N-acetylated metabolites have been identified in plasma, urine and feces.


Following single-dose administration of 2.25 g COLAZAL (three 750 mg capsules) under fasting conditions in healthy subjects, mean urinary recovery of balsalazide, 5-ASA, and N-Ac-5-ASA was 0.20%, 0.22% and 10.2%, respectively.

In a multiple-dose study in healthy subjects receiving a COLAZAL dose of two 750 mg capsules twice daily (3 g/day) for 10 days, mean urinary recovery of balsalazide, 5-ASA, and N-Ac-5-ASA was 0.1%, 0%, and 11.3%, respectively. During this study, subjects received their morning dose 0.5 hours after being fed a standard meal, and subjects received their evening dose 2 hours after being fed a standard meal.

In a study with 10 healthy volunteers, 65% of a single 2.25-gram dose of COLAZAL was recovered as 5-ASA, 4-aminobenzoyl--alanine, and the N-acetylated metabolites in feces, while < 1% of the dose was recovered as parent compound.

In a study that examined the disposition of balsalazide in patients who were taking 3-6 g of COLAZAL daily for more than 1 year and who were in remission from ulcerative colitis, less than 1% of an oral dose was recovered as intact balsalazide in the urine. Less than 4% of the dose was recovered as 5-ASA, while virtually no 4-aminobenzoyl--alanine was detected in urine. The mean urinary recovery of N-Ac-5-ASA and N-acetyl-4-aminobenzoyl-s-alanine comprised < 16% and < 12% of the balsalazide dose, respectively. No fecal recovery studies were performed in this population.

Pediatric Population

In studies of pediatric patients with mild-to-moderate active ulcerative colitis receiving three 750 mg COLAZAL capsules 3 times daily (6.75 g/day) for 8 weeks, steady state was reached within 2 weeks, as observed in adult patients. Likewise, the pharmacokinetics of balsalazide, 5-ASA, and N-Ac-5-ASA were characterized by very large inter-patient variability, which is also similar to that seen in adult patients.

The pro-drug moiety, balsalazide, appeared to exhibit dose-independent (i.e., dose-linear) kinetics in children, and the systemic exposure parameters (Cmax and AUC0-8) increased in an almost dose-proportional fashion after the 6.75 g/day versus the 2.25 g/day doses. However, the absolute magnitude of these exposure parameters was greater relative to adults. The Cmax and AUC0-8 observed in pediatric patients were 26% and 102% greater than those observed in adult patients at the 6.75 g/ day dosage level. In contrast, the systemic exposure parameters for the active metabolites, 5-ASA and N-Ac-5-ASA, in pediatric patients increased in a less than dose-proportional manner after the 6.75 g/ day dose versus the 2.25 g/day dose. Additionally, the magnitude of these exposure parameters was decreased for both metabolites relative to adults. For the metabolite of key safety concern from a systemic exposure perspective, 5-ASA, the Cmax and AUC0-8 observed in pediatric patients were 67% and 64% lower than those observed in adult patients at the 6.75 g/day dosage level. Likewise, for N-Ac-5-ASA, the Cmax and AUC0-8 observed in pediatric patients were 68% and 55% lower than those observed in adult patients at the 6.75 g/day dosage level.

All pharmacokinetic studies with COLAZAL are characterized by large variability in the plasmaconcentration versus time profiles for balsalazide and its metabolites, thus half-life estimates of these analytes are indeterminate.

Animal Toxicology

Renal Toxicity

In animal studies conducted at doses up to 2000 mg/kg (approximately 21 times the recommended 6.75 g/day dose on a mg/kg basis for a 70 kg person), COLAZAL demonstrated no nephrotoxic effects in rats or dogs.


A single oral dose of balsalazide disodium at 5 g/kg or 4-aminobenzoyl--alanine, a metabolite of balsalazide disodium, at 1 g/kg was non-lethal in mice and rats. No symptoms of acute toxicity were seen at these doses.

Clinical Studies

Adult Studies

Two randomized, double-blind studies were conducted in adults. In the first trial, 103 patients with active mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with sigmoidoscopy findings of friable or spontaneously bleeding mucosa were randomized and treated with balsalazide 6.75 g/day or balsalazide 2.25 g/day. The primary efficacy endpoint was reduction of rectal bleeding and improvement of at least one of the other assessed symptoms (stool frequency, patient functional assessment, abdominal pain, sigmoidoscopic grade, and physician's global assessment [PGA]). Outcome assessment for rectal bleeding at each interim period (week 2, 4, and 8) encompassed a 4-day period (96 hours). Results demonstrated a statistically significant difference between high and low doses of COLAZAL (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Percentage of Patients Improved at 8 weeks

Percentage of Patients Improved at 8 weeks - Illustration

A second study, conducted in Europe, confirmed findings of symptomatic improvement.

Pediatric Studies

A clinical trial was conducted comparing two doses (6.75 g/day and 2.25 g/day) of COLAZAL in 68 pediatric patients (age 5 to 17, 23 males and 45 females) with mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis. 28/33 (85%) patients randomized to 6.75 g/day and 25/35 (71%) patients randomized to 2.25 g/day completed the study. The primary endpoint for this study was the proportion of subjects with clinical improvement (defined as a reduction of at least 3 points in the Modified Sutherland Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index [MUCAI] from baseline to 8 weeks). Fifteen (45%) patients in the COLAZAL 6.75 g/ day group and 13 (37%) patients in the COLAZAL 2.25 g/day group showed this clinical improvement. In both groups, patients with higher MUCAI total scores at baseline were likely to experience greater improvement.

Rectal bleeding improved in 64% of patients treated with COLAZAL 6.75 g/day and 54% of patients treated with COLAZAL 2.25 g/day. Colonic mucosal appearance upon endoscopy improved in 61% of patients treated with COLAZAL 6.75 g/day and 46% of patients treated with COLAZAL 2.25 g/day.

Last reviewed on RxList: 2/12/2016
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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