Cold, Flu, Allergy (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Facts about cold, flu, and allergy treatments
- Introduction to cold, flu, and allergy treatments
- What are the differences between allergy, cold, and flu symptoms?
- What are the different types of medications for headaches, body aches, fever, and flu-like symptoms?
- Nasal congestion, sneezing, and runny nose
- Sore throat and other symptoms
- What about vitamin C and zinc?
- What are some important considerations for the safe use of OTC products?
- Cold & Flu FAQs
- Find a local Family Physician in your town
Introduction to cold, flu, and allergy treatments
Millions of people use over-the-counter (OTC) products to relieve symptoms of cold, flu, and allergy, including nasal stuffiness and congestion, sneezing, runny noses, sore throat, and cough. The common causes of these symptoms include the viruses that cause the common cold, influenza virus, allergic rhinitis (hay fever), and sinus infections (sinusitis). Viral infections can also cause headache, body aches, fatigue, and sometimes fever. Hay fever symptoms can also include itchy eyes, nose, and throat, and watery eyes.
To benefit from OTC products for cold, flu, and allergy, it is important to understand (1) the condition causing the symptoms, (2) the predominant symptom(s) one wishes to relieve, and (3) the active ingredient(s) in the product. Some OTC products contain a single active ingredient medication to relieve one symptom. Many others contain a combination of two, three, and even four active ingredient medications to treat several symptoms at once. Selecting the right product can be difficult at times.
Here we have categorized products for cold/flu/allergy according to the predominant symptoms they relieve:
- Headaches, body aches, fever, and flu-like symptoms
- Nasal congestion, runny nose, and sneezing
- Sore throat
Since cold and flu sufferers usually experience several symptoms, products containing medication combinations provide convenience. Therefore, you may need to take only one product as compared with two to four products. You also may need to stock fewer items in the medicine cabinet. Nevertheless, it is preferable to take products that contain only those medications you need for relieving the symptoms that are present, and you may not need products designed to relieve multiple symptoms at once. This prevents the ingestion of unnecessary medications and reduces the chances of side effects. It is also easier to adjust the dose of a single ingredient medicine to maximize relief of a predominant symptom and minimize side effects.
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