"The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Akorn Inc's phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution (2.5% and 10%), the company has announced.
The alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist is commonly used by optometrists, ophtha"...
Clinical Studies Experience
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In clinical trials of 12 months duration with COMBIGAN® , the most frequent reactions associated with its use occurring in approximately 5% to 15% of the patients included: allergic conjunctivitis, conjunctival folliculosis, conjunctival hyperemia, eye pruritus, ocular burning, and stinging. The following adverse reactions were reported in 1% to 5% of patients: asthenia, blepharitis, corneal erosion, depression, epiphora, eye discharge, eye dryness, eye irritation, eye pain, eyelid edema, eyelid erythema, eyelid pruritus, foreign body sensation, headache, hypertension, oral dryness, somnolence, superficial punctate keratitis, and visual disturbance.
Other adverse reactions that have been reported with the individual components are listed below.
Brimonidine Tartrate (0.1%-0.2%)
Abnormal taste, allergic reaction, blepharoconjunctivitis, blurred vision, bronchitis, cataract, conjunctival edema, conjunctival hemorrhage, conjunctivitis, cough, dizziness, dyspepsia, dyspnea, fatigue, flu syndrome, follicular conjunctivitis, gastrointestinal disorder, hypercholesterolemia, hypotension, infection (primarily colds and respiratory infections), hordeolum, insomnia, keratitis, lid disorder, nasal dryness, ocular allergic reaction, pharyngitis, photophobia, rash, rhinitis, sinus infection, sinusitis, taste perversion, tearing, visual field defect, vitreous detachment, vitreous disorder, vitreous floaters, and worsened visual acuity.
Timolol (Ocular Administration)
Body as a whole: chest pain; Cardiovascular: Arrhythmia, bradycardia, cardiac arrest, cardiac failure, cerebral ischemia, cerebral vascular accident, claudication, cold hands and feet, edema, heart block, palpitation, pulmonary edema, Raynaud's phenomenon, syncope, and worsening of angina pectoris; Digestive: Anorexia, diarrhea, nausea; Immunologic: Systemic lupus erythematosus; Nervous System/Psychiatric: Increase in signs and symptoms of myasthenia gravis, insomnia, nightmares, paresthesia, behavioral changes and psychic disturbances including confusion, hallucinations, anxiety, disorientation, nervousness, and memory loss; Skin: Alopecia, psoriasiform rash or exacerbation of psoriasis; Hypersensitivity: Signs and symptoms of systemic allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, urticaria, and generalized and localized rash; Respiratory: Bronchospasm (predominantly in patients with pre-existing bronchospastic disease), dyspnea, nasal congestion, respiratory failure; Endocrine: Masked symptoms of hypoglycemia in diabetes patients [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]; Special Senses: diplopia, choroidal detachment following filtration surgery, cystoid macular edema, decreased corneal sensitivity, pseudopemphigoid, ptosis, refractive changes, tinnitus; Urogenital: Decreased libido, impotence, Peyronie's disease, retroperitoneal fibrosis.
The following reactions have been identified during post-marketing use of brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solutions, timolol ophthalmic solutions, or both in combination, in clinical practice. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. The reactions, which have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of reporting, possible causal connection to brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solutions, timolol ophthalmic solutions, or a combination of these factors, include: depression, eyelid erythema extending to the cheek or forehead, hypersensitivity, iritis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, miosis, nausea, skin reactions (including erythema, eyelid pruritus, rash, and vasodilation), and tachycardia. In infants, apnea, bradycardia, coma, hypotension, hypothermia, hypotonia, lethargy, pallor, respiratory depression, and somnolence have been reported [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and Use in Specific Populations].
Oral Timolol/Oral Beta-blockers
The following additional adverse reactions have been reported in clinical experience with ORAL timolol maleate or other ORAL beta-blocking agents and may be considered potential effects of ophthalmic timolol maleate: Allergic: Erythematous rash, fever combined with aching and sore throat, laryngospasm with respiratory distress; Body as a whole: Decreased exercise tolerance, extremity pain, weight loss; Cardiovascular: Vasodilatation, worsening of arterial insufficiency; Digestive: Gastrointestinal pain, hepatomegaly, ischemic colitis, mesenteric arterial thrombosis, vomiting; Hematologic: Agranulocytosis, nonthrombocytopenic purpura, thrombocytopenic purpura; Endocrine: Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia; Skin: Increased pigmentation, pruritus, skin irritation, sweating; Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia; Nervous System/Psychiatric: An acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation for time and place, decreased performance on neuropsychometrics, diminished concentration, emotional lability, local weakness, reversible mental depression progressing to catatonia, slightly clouded sensorium, vertigo; Respiratory: Bronchial obstruction, rales; Urogenital: Urination difficulties.
Read the Combigan (brimonidine tartrate, timolol maleate ophthalmic solution .2%/.5%) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Because COMBIGAN® may reduce blood pressure, caution in using drugs such as antihypertensives and/or cardiac glycosides with COMBIGAN® is advised.
Beta-adrenergic Blocking Agents
Patients who are receiving a beta-adrenergic blocking agent orally and COMBIGAN® should be observed for potential additive effects of beta-blockade, both systemic and on intraocular pressure. The concomitant use of two topical beta-adrenergic blocking agents is not recommended.
Caution should be used in the co-administration of beta-adrenergic blocking agents, such as COMBIGAN® , and oral or intravenous calcium antagonists because of possible atrioventricular conduction disturbances, left ventricular failure, and hypotension. In patients with impaired cardiac function, co-administration should be avoided.
Close observation of the patient is recommended when a beta blocker is administered to patients receiving catecholamine-depleting drugs such as reserpine, because of possible additive effects and the production of hypotension and/or marked bradycardia, which may result in vertigo, syncope, or postural hypotension.
Although specific drug interaction studies have not been conducted with COMBIGAN® , the possibility of an additive or potentiating effect with CNS depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, opiates, sedatives, or anesthetics) should be considered.
Digitalis and Calcium Antagonists
The concomitant use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents with digitalis and calcium antagonists may have additive effects in prolonging atrioventricular conduction time.
Potentiated systemic beta-blockade (e.g., decreased heart rate, depression) has been reported during combined treatment with CYP2D6 inhibitors (e.g., quinidine, SSRIs) and timolol.
Tricyclic antidepressants have been reported to blunt the hypotensive effect of systemic clonidine. It is not known whether the concurrent use of these agents with COMBIGAN® in humans can lead to resulting interference with the IOP-lowering effect. Caution, however, is advised in patients taking tricyclic antidepressants which can affect the metabolism and uptake of circulating amines.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors may theoretically interfere with the metabolism of brimonidine and potentially result in an increased systemic side effect such as hypotension.
Caution, however, is advised in patients taking MAO inhibitors which can affect the metabolism and uptake of circulating amines.
Read the Combigan Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/19/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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