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COMBIVENT RESPIMAT can produce paradoxical bronchospasm that can be life-threatening. If it occurs, therapy with COMBIVENT RESPIMAT should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy instituted.
The albuterol sulfate contained in COMBIVENT RESPIMAT, like other beta-adrenergic agonists, can produce a clinically significant cardiovascular effect in some patients, as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure, and/or symptoms. If these symptoms occur, COMBIVENT RESPIMAT may need to be discontinued. There is some evidence from post-marketing data and published literature of rare occurrences of myocardial ischemia associated with albuterol. In addition, beta-adrenergic agents have been reported to produce electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, such as flattening of the T wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression. Therefore, COMBIVENT RESPIMAT should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders; especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Ipratropium bromide, a component of COMBIVENT RESPIMAT, is an anticholinergic and may increase intraocular pressure. This may result in precipitation or worsening of narrow-angle glaucoma. Therefore, COMBIVENT RESPIMAT should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Patients should avoid spraying COMBIVENT RESPIMAT into the eyes. If a patient sprays COMBIVENT RESPIMAT into their eyes they may cause acute eye pain or discomfort, temporary blurring of vision, mydriasis, visual halos, or colored images in association with red eyes from conjunctival or corneal congestion. Advise patients to consult their physician immediately if any of these symptoms develop while using COMBIVENT RESPIMAT.
Ipratropium bromide, a component of COMBIVENT RESPIMAT, is an anticholinergic and may cause urinary retention. Therefore, caution is advised when administering this medication to patients with prostatic hyperplasia or bladder-neck obstruction [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Do Not Exceed Recommended Dose
Fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs in patients with asthma. The exact cause of death is unknown, but cardiac arrest following an unexpected development of a severe acute asthmatic crisis and subsequent hypoxia is suspected [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Hypersensitivity Reactions Including Anaphylaxis
Hypersensitivity reactions including urticaria, angioedema, rash, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis, and oropharyngeal edema may occur after administration of ipratropium bromide or albuterol sulfate. In clinical trials and post-marketing experience with ipratropium containing products, hypersensitivity reactions such as skin rash, pruritus, angioedema of tongue, lips and face, urticaria (including giant urticaria), laryngospasm and anaphylactic reactions have been reported [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. If such a reaction occurs, therapy with COMBIVENT RESPIMAT should be stopped at once and alternative treatment should be considered [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
COMBIVENT RESPIMAT contains albuterol sulfate, a beta-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine and, therefore, should be used with caution in patients with convulsive disorders, hyperthyroidism, or diabetes mellitus, and in patients who are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines.
Beta-adrenergic agents may produce significant hypokalemia in some patients (possibly through intracellular shunting) which has the potential to produce adverse cardiovascular effects. The decrease in serum potassium is usually transient, not requiring supplementation [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved Patient Labeling
Caution patients to avoid spraying the aerosol into their eyes and be advised that this may result in precipitation or worsening of narrow-angle glaucoma, mydriasis, increased intraocular pressure, acute eye pain or discomfort, temporary blurring of vision, visual halos or colored images in association with red eyes from conjunctival and corneal congestion. Patients should also be advised that should any combination of these symptoms develop, they should consult their physician immediately.
Since dizziness, accommodation disorder, mydriasis, and blurred vision may occur with use of COMBIVENT RESPIMAT, patients should be cautioned about engaging in activities requiring balance and visual acuity such as driving a car or operating appliances or machinery.
Inform patients that COMBIVENT RESPIMAT may cause urinary retention and should be advised to consult their physician if they experience difficulty with urination.
Frequency of Use
The action of COMBIVENT RESPIMAT should last 4 to 5 hours or longer. COMBIVENT RESPIMAT should not be used more frequently than recommended. Safety and efficacy of additional doses of COMBIVENT RESPIMAT beyond six inhalations in 24 hours have not been studied. Patients should be told not to increase the dose or frequency of COMBIVENT RESPIMAT without consulting a physician. Patients should be instructed that if they find that treatment with COMBIVENT RESPIMAT becomes less effective for symptomatic relief, their symptoms become worse, and/or they need to use the product more frequently than usual, medical attention should be sought immediately.
Preparation for Use and Priming
Instruct patients that priming COMBIVENT RESPIMAT is essential to ensure appropriate content of the medication in each actuation.
When using the unit for the first time, the COMBIVENT RESPIMAT cartridge is inserted into the COMBIVENT RESPIMAT inhaler and the unit is primed. COMBIVENT RESPIMAT patients are to actuate the inhaler toward the ground until an aerosol cloud is visible and then repeat the process three more times. The unit is then considered primed and ready for use. If not used for more than 3 days, patients are to actuate the inhaler once to prepare the inhaler for use. If not used for more than 21 days, patients are to actuate the inhaler until an aerosol cloud is visible and then repeat the process three more times to prepare the inhaler for use. [See FDA-approved Patient Labeling].
Concomitant Drug Use
Remind patients that while taking COMBIVENT RESPIMAT, other inhaled drugs should be taken only as directed by a physician.
Inform patients that COMBIVENT RESPIMAT can produce paradoxical bronchospasm that can be life-threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs, patients should discontinue using COMBIVENT RESPIMAT.
Adverse Effects Associated with Beta2-agonists
Patients who are pregnant or nursing should contact their physician about the use of COMBIVENT RESPIMAT.
FDA-approved Patient Labeling
Instructions for Use is supplied as a tear-off following the full prescribing information.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Two-year oral carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice have revealed no carcinogenic activity at doses up to 6 mg/kg/day (approximately 400 and 200 times the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose of ipratropium bromide (MRHDID) in adults on a mg/mē basis, respectively).
Results of various mutagenicity/clastogenicity studies (Ames test, mouse dominant lethal test, mouse micronucleus test, and chromosome aberration of bone marrow in Chinese hamsters) were negative.
Fertility of male or female rats at oral doses up to 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 3400 times the MRHDID in adults on a mg/mē basis) was unaffected by ipratropium bromide administration. At an oral dose of 500 mg/kg/day (approximately 34,000 times the MRHDID in adults on a mg/mē basis), ipratropium bromide produced a decrease in the conception rate.
Like other agents in its class, albuterol caused a significant dose-related increase in the incidence of benign leiomyomas of the mesovarium in a 2-year study in the rat at dietary doses of 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 20, 110, and 560 times the MRHDID on a mg/mē basis). In another study this effect was blocked by the coadministration of propranolol. The relevance of these findings to humans is not known. An 18-month study in mice at dietary doses up to 500 mg/kg/day (approximately 2800 times the MRHDID on a mg/mē basis) and a 99-week study in hamsters at oral doses up to 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 470 times the MRHDID on a mg/mē basis) revealed no evidence of tumorigenicity. Studies with albuterol revealed no evidence of mutagenesis.
Reproduction studies in rats with albuterol sulfate revealed no evidence of impaired fertility.
Use In Specific Populations
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C
COMBIVENT RESPIMAT Inhalation Spray
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of COMBIVENT RESPIMAT (ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Spray, ipratropium bromide, or albuterol sulfate, in pregnant women. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with COMBIVENT RESPIMAT. However, albuterol sulfate has been shown to be teratogenic in mice and rabbits. COMBIVENT RESPIMAT Inhalation Spray should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Oral reproduction studies were performed in mice, rats and rabbits at doses approximately 340, 68,000 and 17,000 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose (MRHDID) in adults (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses in each species of 10, 1000 and 125 mg/kg/day, respectively). Inhalation reproduction studies were conducted in rats and rabbits at approximately 100 and 240 times, respectively, the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses of 1.5 and 1.8 mg/kg/day, respectively). These studies demonstrated no evidence of teratogenic effects as a result of ipratropium bromide. Embryotoxicity was observed as increased resorption in rats at oral doses approximately 6100 times MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses of 90 mg/kg/day and above). This effect is not considered relevant to human use due to the large doses at which it was observed and the difference in route of administration.
Albuterol has been shown to be teratogenic in mice and rabbits. A reproduction study in CD-1 mice given albuterol subcutaneously showed cleft palate formation in 5 of 111 (4.5%) fetuses at approximately equivalent to the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal dose of 0.25 mg/kg/day) and in 10 of 183 (9.3%) fetuses at approximately 14 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m² basis a maternal dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day). None was observed at less than MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal dose of 0.025 mg/kg/day). Cleft palate also occurred in 22 of 72 (30.5%) fetuses treated with 2.5 mg/kg/day isoproterenol (positive control). A reproductive study with oral albuterol in Stride Dutch rabbits revealed cranioschisis in 7 of 19 (37%) fetuses at approximately 1,100 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal dose of 50 mg/kg/day).
Labor and Delivery
Because of the potential for beta-agonist interference with uterine contractility, use of COMBIVENT RESPIMAT for the treatment of COPD during labor should be restricted to those patients in whom the benefits clearly outweigh the risk.
It is not known whether the components of COMBIVENT RESPIMAT are excreted in human milk.
Because lipid-insoluble quaternary cations pass into breast milk, caution should be exercised when COMBIVENT RESPIMAT is administered to a nursing mother.
Because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for albuterol in animal studies, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness of COMBIVENT RESPIMAT in pediatric patients have not been established. COMBIVENT RESPIMAT is indicated for use in patients with COPD on a regular aerosol bronchodilator who continue to have evidence of bronchospasm and who require a second bronchodilator. This disease does not normally occur in children.
In the 12-week trial in COPD, 48% of COMBIVENT RESPIMAT clinical trial patients were 65 years of age or over. In general, there were no marked differences between the proportion of patients with adverse reactions for the COMBIVENT RESPIMAT and CFC-propelled COMBIVENT Inhalation Aerosol treated patients. Cardiac and lower respiratory disorders occurred less frequently in the patients under the age of 65 and were balanced across treatment groups.
No overall differences in effectiveness were observed among treatment groups. Based on available data, no adjustment of COMBIVENT RESPIMAT dosage in geriatric patients is warranted.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/9/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Combivent Respimat Information
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